Introduction to Internet Mobility Protocols in .NET

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5.1.2 Mobile IP Messaging Security
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Experience tells us it is better not to trust strangers completely, regardless of how nice they may seem. Mobile IP is a protocol that was originally designed to deal with mobile nodes connecting through networks other than their home network. However, trust was something that was not discussed when designing network routing protocols a few decades ago. However, with the increased need for mobility and connectivity through unknown networks, especially wireless ones, trust establishment has become a major component of network signaling protocol design. The signaling required for management protocols must be protected from active attackers. In the case of Mobile IP, a rogue mobile device can use its own or a fake IP address as CoA and create false registration requests on behalf of a legitimate Mobile IP client and cause the traffic for that client to be diverted to different location. Another example is that a rogue mobile device can intercept a legitimate registration request from another mobile device and replace the CoA in that packet with its own IP address. This would cause future traffic to that MN to divert to the rogue MN. A third example is a rogue user that simply creates a large number of registration requests towards a foreign network, causing a denial of service attack. For those reasons and many others, integrity protection for Mobile IP registration requests is a required security measure:
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The MN must authenticate its registration requests to the HA and the HA must authenticate its registration reply to the MN. The foreign network and foreign agents must be protected from false registration requests or replays of previously emitted registration requests. The foreign agent and the home agent should be able to trust each other and authenticate control messages to each other, when needed.
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The basic Mobile IP standards [MIP3344] do recognize the need for message integrity protection for registration requests and specify methods by which the MN and HA can authenticate registration requests and replies. The MN performs this authentication by calculating a signature called an authenticator and including the authenticators within specific authentication extensions to the registration request. RFC 3344, however, only mandates authentication of registration requests to the HA, while leaving an authentication to the FA optional. However, the HA must also use an authentication extension to authenticate its reply to the MN. The authenticator value is calculated using a previously agreed upon hash algorithm over pre-specified message contents as follows: authenticator = HMAC_MD5(X_Y_key, UDP_payload, prior_extension, type, length, SPI) For instance, the mobile may add a mobile-home authentication extension to authenticate its message to the HA. In the same way the mobile may optionally add a mobile-foreign authentication extension to authenticate its registration request to the FA. Note that the UDP payload above includes the registration request or reply message (please see registration signaling format shown earlier in Figures 5.3 and 5.4). In order to make the processing of authenticator values at the sender and the receiver side more straightforward, the exact format of the authentication extension carrying these authenticators is
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defined. The mobile-home authentication extension is defined in RFC 3344 for authentication of the MN and its messages to HA, while mobile-foreign authentication extension is defined for authentication of the MN and its messages to the FA. For authentication of the FA and its messages to HA, a foreign-home authentication extension is used. Note that the extension can be used for authentication in the reverse direction as well, e.g. the mobile-home authentication extension can be used for HA to MN authentication as well, although the exact value of some fields (such as SPI) will be different, as explained later. The exact format of these extensions is shown in Table 5.4. However, since the format for all these extensions is very similar, we use the notation of X-Y authentication extension. As we can see, the extension not only includes the calculated authenticator values, but also includes information that helps the receiver to verify the authenticator value, such as the length of the authenticator, and the SPI (security parameter index). The SPI helps the receiver locate the security context, i.e. the context that is required to verify the authenticator value and thereby authenticate the sent message or the sender. The context can include algorithms and the shared key between the two entities (X and Y), an agreed hash algorithm, and so on. RFC 3344 does not provide further guidance on this SPI and the security context it represents. We will discuss these SPIs in more detail in 8. As mentioned, the base Mobile IP specifications (RFC 2002, 3344) only mandate the use of mobile-home authentication extension, while they consider the other authentications to be only optional. However, an efficient network security design should require all the authentications. Another security problem is that, although the registration request includes an identification field that provides anti-replay protection for the HA, the authentication extensions as designed do not provide any protection for the foreign network against replay attacks. Random one-time values, such as nonces or challenge/response mechanisms with nonrepeatable challenges, should be included in the messaging to ensure the messages are not replayed at a later time. IETF RFC 3012 [MIPCHAL3102] and its draft revision [3102bis] specified a method to provide protection for the foreign network against replay attacks: the FA issues a temporary challenge towards the mobile node and expects the mobile to append that challenge to its registration
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Table 5.4 Authentication extensions for Mobile IPv4 X Y Authentication extension Field name Type Length SPI Description 32 for mobile home, 33 for mobile foreign, 34 for foreign home 4 bytes (for SPI) plus the number of bytes in the authenticator Security parameter index (4 bytes), which is used by the receiver to select the algorithm, mode and secret that was used for computing the authenticator. For instance: When MN is sending a message to HA, this field includes SPI allocated by the HA to locate MN-HA MSA When HA is sending a message to MN, this field includes SPI allocated by the MN to allocate HA-MN_MSA Calculated on (UDP payload, all extensions prior to the current Auth. Extension, type, length, and SPI)
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