AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access in .NET

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AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access
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4.3.3.2 ISAKMP Payloads in IKE Conversations As mentioned earlier, SA negotiation takes place in the first phase of IKE and is started with SA offers by the initiators. Among the payloads that are shown in Table 4.3, the security association, proposal, and transform payloads are very important, since these are the payloads that are used to build ISAKMP messages used for negotiation and establishment of IPsec SAs. Each SA establishment message includes a single SA offer with one or more proposals, each of which may include one or more transforms. For instance, one peer may propose the use of AH and ESP as protocols to accomplish both authentication and encryption by using two proposal payloads. A user that needs to use MD5 for authentication with AH and 3DES for encryption with ESP and sends a transform payload indicating MD5 along with a proposal including AH as protocol and a transform payload indicating 3DES along with a proposal including ESP as protocol. All this together forms the IKE SA proposal that is sent by each party during the first exchange of IKE (shown as ISAi and ISAr in Figures 4.5 and 4.6). The offer is included in transform payload/s encapsulated in proposal payload encapsulated in SA payloads.
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4.3.4 The Gory Details of IKE
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The IKE specification, specifically [IKE2409] tends to be very brief on the lingual side. Following the details and mathematics of the key management process requires going through the ISAKMP and other specifications. Another important and at the same time difficult topic is the IKE authentication process. The specification provides several authentication alternatives, but it is short on the explanations or providing pros and cons. To make matters worse, it seems that there may be a few typing errors in the specifications and none of the material offered on the Internet seem to have discovered or admitted this. There are very few articles explaining such details, with [IKEBORELLA] being a great exception. Our main intention in this section is to make a humble attempt at shedding more light on the IKE key management and authentication methods. The mathematical descriptions are mostly borrowed from [IKE2409].
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4.3.4.1 Derivation of ISAKMP Short-Term Keys As mentioned earlier, the Diffie Hellman exchange in IKE phase 1 creates a shared secret between the two peers. We explained the Diffie Hellman process in 3, but to be consistent with the IKE terminology we replace some of the notations in 3 with those used in [IKE2409]:
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g^xi and g^xr are the public keys for the initiator and responder, sometimes referred to as DH half keys for initiator and responder. It should be noted that the modulo p operation is omitted from the notation, since it is understood that a DH (g, p) group indicates a modulo p operation. The shared secret that is the result of the Diffie Hellman exchange is denoted as g^xy, which for simplicity we sometimes call DH key and denote DHK.
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The DH shared secret (DHK) created during the second exchange of IKE phase 1 is not used directly as the key that protects the second-phase negotiation. Instead, IKE uses the
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DHK in deriving a master key that is called SKEYID, which in turn is used to derive further keys for protection of second phase of IKE conversations:
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SKEYID_d is the keying material used to derive keys for non-ISAKMP SAs (such as IPsec SAs) from the SKEYID during main or aggressive mode as follows SKEYID_d = prf(SKEYID, (g^xy | CKY_I | CKY_R | 0)) where prf stands for pseudorandom function. Typically, a keyed hash function prf(key, information) is used. SKEYID_a is the keying material used by the ISAKMP to authenticate the messages during the IKE phase 2 conversation and is derived from SKEYID as follows: SKEYID_a = prf(SKEYID, SKEYID_d | g^xy | CKY_I | CKY_R | 1)
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SKEYID_e is the keying material used by the ISAKMP to protect the confidentiality (encryption) of the messages during the IKE phase 2 conversations and is derived from SKEYID as follows SKEYID_e = prf(SKEYID, SKEYID_a | g^xy | CKY_I | CKY_R | 2)
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Values 0, 1, and 2 are used as single octets. Again, we like to emphasize that SKEYID_a and SKEYID_e are used to create an ISAKMP SA for authentication and encryption of IKE phase 2 conversations, i.e. the conversations that carry the negotiation of IPsec SA and keys. These are different from keys used by IPsec protocols later on. The IPsec keys are derived from the SKEYID_d as follows: protocol_key = prf(SKEYID_d, protocol | SPI | Ni | Nr) where protocol and SPI are provided by the ISAKMP proposal payload described earlier. At this point, an observant reader might ask: How the SKEYID, itself, is derived We simply said that SKEYID is derived from DHK. What we did not mention is that derivation of SKEYID requires more than DHK and the reason (aside from all the mathematics) may be obvious: We did mention in 3 that Diffie Hellman exchange must be accompanied with authentication, otherwise the two peers cannot know the identity of the other party and consequently do not know whom they are engaging in a key exchange with. For the same reason, the mere establishment of a DHK is not enough for an ISAKMP SA that in itself will be the source of trust for all the IPsec SAs that are established later on, since any node could have spoofed the legitimate party s identification in the exchanges prior to DHK and thereby during SKEYID derivation. Hence, the calculation of SKEYID needs to draw from the authentication credentials that are used for the authentication exchange following the DHK. Such authentication credentials are typically long-term credentials that are either statically configured in the form of pre-shared secrets or public-private key pairs. On the other hand, the ISAKMP SA keys (SKEYID, SKEYID_a, SKEYID_e, and SKEYID_d) derived in the IKE process are called short-term keys, since they are derived only for the IKE conversations.
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