AAA and Identity Management for Mobile Access in .NET

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AAA and Identity Management for Mobile Access
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Bilateral relationships: In this case, the two operators have a direct peer-to-peer agreement. Brokered relationships: In this case, two operators deal with each other through a brokerage service. Alliances: In this case, each operator has a multi-way relationship with several members within an alliance as needed.
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In the following we describe each of these scenarios in more detail from a AAA perspective.
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11.1.3 Bilateral Billing and Trust Agreements and AAA Issues
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As mentioned earlier, this model can be deployed for two scenarios: 1. Two co-existing operators providing complementary connectivity service to the user across their access networks. 2. A service provider using an access network provider to reach the user. In the first case, the agreement is a type of roaming agreement, meaning that the user can use both networks but have a business relationship with only one network (the home operator). The user typically also has an initial and permanent security relationship with only the home operator, but establishes a temporary trust relationship with the new operator. This new trust relationship is transitive, i.e. it is derived from the long-term relationship between the two providers and the relationship between the user and her home operator, when needed. By trust relationship, we typically mean that mutual authentication has taken place (the identities of both sides are confirmed) and a proper set of security mechanisms and related keys have been established to protect the communication channels. The user does not have any business relationship with the visited network. This is shown in Figure 11.1. In the second case, where a service provider needs to co-exist with an access provider to reach the user through the access network, the user typically has a separate relationship with both the access network provider and the service provider. We will not consider that case here since the billing model is less sophisticated in that case (the poor user simply
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Visited access network
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Home operator or service provider Home server : Network connectivity
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: Business agreement : Trust relationship
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Figure 11.1 Business and trust relationships for a roaming user
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AAA and Network Security for Mobile Access
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pays two separate bills every month), while the trust model is similar to what we described for co-existing access providers. For that reason, let us focus on the AAA issues that arise for the first case, assuming a bilateral agreement exists between two access network operators:
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As we said earlier, the idea is to allow the user to only deal with one single monthly bill from her home operator, regardless of the operator she is using. This means the user has a business relationship only with her home provider. As a result of the business relationship, a trust relationship is established between the user and the home operator, meaning that the user receives a set of credentials only with the home operator. To support a single bill feature for the user, there needs to be a behind-the-scenes business agreement between the operators, so that the visited operator providing service to the roaming user can collect and present verifiable usage records to the home operator.
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For this scenario to happen, several things need to be done: 1. The serving (visited) and the home provider must agree on a charging scheme, so that they each know how much a specific service provided with a specific quality at a specific time costs. The visited network collects the usage information based on this scheme and sends it to the home network in the form of accounting packets. Based on a billing agreement and the aggregate usage information, the home operator collects revenue from the user and pays the visited operator. To provide scalability, the visited network may opt to send bulk accounting information on a large number of users visiting from the home operator during a specific period of time. AAA protocols in conjunction with roaming protocols need to achieve this functionality. But as well as accounting there are other things that need to happen. 2. In order to warrant a payment from the home operator, the visited operator must obey the authorization policies set by the home operator. Let us see what this means: honoring the business agreement between the user and the home operator, the home operator sets up an authorization profile for the user. This profile shows what level of service the user is allowed to receive. Whenever the user requests a service, the user authorization profile stored at the home network must be consulted before an authorization directive can be issued. When the user is making the request from a visiting operator s domain, the visiting operator must consult the home operator to receive this authorization directive. The visited operator needs to make sure that the services it provides to the user are not beyond the user home operator agreement. If such violations occur without consulting the home operator first: good for the user and bad for the visited operator. 3. Authorizing the user for service in the visited operator domain may be achieved in the following way: the visited operator can forward the initial service request to the home operator. This request may even include a simultaneous authentication request, but we will deal with that later. The visited operator only acts as a proxy and sends the request in the form of a AAA request message to the home operator. However, to do this, the visited operator needs to know who the user s home operator is. This is part of the identity management problem that we will describe in the next subsection. After receiving the request, the home operator makes the authorization (and typically authentication) decision and forwards the results back along with specific service provisioning information to the visited operator.
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