Inlining and Outlining in .NET

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Inlining and Outlining
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Inlining is a well-known compiler optimization technique where functions are duplicated to any place in the program that calls them. Instead of having all callers call into a single copy of the function, the compiler replaces every call into the function with an actual in-place copy of it. This improves runtime performance because the overhead of calling a function is completely eliminated, at the cost of significantly bloating the size of the program (because functions are duplicated). In the context of obfuscating transformations, inlining is a powerful tool because it eliminates the internal abstractions created by the software developer. Reversers have no information on which parts of a certain function are actually just inlined functions that might be called from numerous places throughout the program. One interesting enhancement suggested in [Collberg3] is to combine inlining with outlining in order to create a highly potent transformation. Outlining means that you take a certain code sequence that belongs in one function and create a new function that contains just that sequence. In other words it is the exact opposite of inlining. As an obfuscation tool, outlining becomes effective when you take a random piece of code and create a dedicated function for it. When done repetitively, such a process can really add to the confusion factor experienced by a human reverser.
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Interleaving Code
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Code interleaving is a reasonably effective obfuscation technique that is highly potent, yet can be quite costly in terms of execution speed and code size. The basic concept is quite simple: You take two or more functions and interleave their implementations so that they become exceedingly difficult to read.
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Function1() { Function1_Segment1; Function1_Segment2; Function1_Segment3; } Function2() { Function2_Segment1; Function2_Segment2; Function2_Segment3; } Function3() { Function3_Segment1; Function3_Segment2; Function3_Segment3; }
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Here is what these three functions would look like in memory after they are interleaved.
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Function1_Segment3; End of Function1 Function1_Segment1; (This is Opaque Predicate -> Always Function3_Segment2; Opaque Predicate -> Always Function3_Segment1; (This is Opaque Predicate -> Always Function2_Segment2; Opaque Predicate -> Always Function1_Segment2; Opaque Predicate -> Always Function2_Segment3; End of Function2 Function3_Segment3; End of Function3 Function2_Segment1; (This is Opaque Predicate -> Always
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the Function1 entry-point) jumps to Function1_Segment2 jumps to Segment3 the Function3 entry-point) jumps to Function3_Segment2 jumps to Function2_Segment3 jumps to Function1_Segment3
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the Function2 entry-point) jumps to Function2_Segment2
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Antireversing Techniques
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Notice how each function segment is followed by an opaque predicate that jumps to the next segment. You could theoretically use an unconditional jump in that position, but that would make automated deobfuscation quite trivial. As for fooling a human reverser, it all depends on how convincing your opaque predicates are. If a human reverser can quickly identify the opaque predicates from the real program logic, it won t take long before these functions are reversed. On the other hand, if the opaque predicates are very confusing and look as if they are an actual part of the program s logic, the preceding example might be quite difficult to reverse. Additional obfuscation can be achieved by having all three functions share the same entry point and adding a parameter that tells the new function which of the three code paths should be taken. The beauty of this is that it can be highly confusing if the three functions are functionally irrelevant.
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Ordering Transformations
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Shuffling the order of operations in a program is a free yet decently effective method for confusing reversers. The idea is to simply randomize the order of operations in a function as much as possible. This is beneficial because as reversers we count on the locality of the code we re reversing we assume that there s a logical order to the operations performed by the program. It is obviously not always possible to change the order of operations performed in a program; many program operations are codependent. The idea is to find operations that are not codependent and completely randomize their order. Ordering transformations are more relevant for automated obfuscation tools, because it wouldn t be advisable to change the order of operations in the program source code. The confusion caused by the software developers would probably outweigh the minor influence this transformation has on reversers.
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