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How do we decide which container type to choose when we do not know the number of elements we need to store (that is, the container is going to grow dynamically) and when there is no need either for random access or insertion except at the back Is a list or vector in this case significantly more efficient (We'll postpone an answer to this question until the next section) A list grows in a straightforward manner: each time a new object is inserted into the list, the front pointer and back pointer of the two elements between which the new object is being inserted are reassigned to point to the new object The front and back pointers of the new object, in turn, are initialized to address these two elements The list holds only the storage necessary for the elements it contains The overhead is two-fold: the two additional pointers associated with each value and the indirect access of the value through a pointer The representation and overhead of a dynamic vector are more complex We look at that in the next section Exercise 61 Which is the most appropriate a vector, a deque, or a list for the following program tasks, or is neither preferred a Read an unknown number of words from a file for the purpose of generating random English language sentences b Read a fixed number of words, inserting them in the container alphabetically as they are entered c Read an unknown number of words Always insert new words at the back Remove the next value from the front d Read an unknown number of integers from a file Sort the numbers and then print them to standard output
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For a vector to grow dynamically, it must allocate the memory to hold the new sequence, copy the elements of the old sequence in turn, and deallocate the old memory Moreover, if the elements are class objects, the copy and deallocation may require the invocation of the class copy constructor and destructor on each element in turn Because a list simply links the new elements each time the container grows, there seems little question that a list is the more efficient of the two container types in its support of dynamic growth But in practice this is not the case Let's see why To be of even minimum efficiency, the vector cannot actually regrow itself with each individual insertion Rather, when the vector needs to grow itself, it allocates additional storage capacity beyond its immediate need it holds this storage in reserve (The exact amount of additional capacity allocated is implementation-defined) This strategy allows for a significantly more efficient regrowing of the container so much so, in fact, that for small objects, a vector in practice turns out to grow more efficiently than a list Let's look at some examples under the Rogue Wave implementation of the C++ standard library But first, let's make clear the distinction between the capacity and size of a container Capacity is the total number of elements that can be added to a container before it needs to regrow itself (Capacity is associated only with a container in which storage is contiguous: for example, a vector, deque, or string A list does not require capacity) To discover the capacity of a vector, we invoke its capacity() operation Size, on the other hand, is the number of elements a container currently holds To retrieve the current size of a container, we invoke its size() operation For example:
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#include <vector> #include <iostream> int main() { vector< int > ivec; cout "ivec: size: " ivecsize() " capacity: " iveccapacity() endl; for ( int ix = 0; ix < 24; ++ix ) { ivecpush_back( ix );
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