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_size = 0; _string = 0; } inline String::String( const char *str ) { if ( ! str ) { _size = 0; _string = 0; } else { _size = strlen( str ); _string = new char[ _size + 1 ]; strcpy( _string, str ); } } // copy constructor inline String::String( const String &rhs ) { _size = rhs_size; if ( ! rhs_string ) _string = 0; else { _string = new char[ _size + 1 ]; strcpy( _string, rhs_string ); } }
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Because we allocate memory dynamically using the new expression to hold the character string, we must deallocate that memory using the delete expression when the String object is no longer needed This can be achieved automatically by defining a class destructor and placing the delete expression within it A class destructor, if present, is automatically invoked on each class object following the end of the object's lifetime ( 8 illustrates the three possible lifetimes of an object) A destructor is identified by giving it the name of the class preceded by a tilde (~) Here is our definition of the String class destructor:
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inline String::~String() { delete [] _string; }
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The two overloaded assignment operators reference the special keyword this When we write
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String name1( "orville" ), name2( "wilbur" ); name1 = "Orville Wright";
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this points to name1 within our assignment operator More generally, the this pointer is automatically set within a class member function to address the left-hand class object through which the member function is invoked When we write
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ptr->size(); obj[ 1024 ];
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within size(), the this pointer addresses ptr; within the subscript operator, the this pointer addresses obj When we write *this we are accessing the actual object addressed by this (Section 134 discusses the this pointer in detail)
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inline String& String::operator=( const char *s ) { if ( ! s ) { _size = 0; delete [] _string; _string = 0; } else { _size = strlen( s ); delete [] _string; _string = new char[ _size + 1 ]; strcpy( _string, s ); } return *this; }
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One common pitfall when copying one class object with another is to forget to first test that the two class objects are not actually the same This error most typically occurs in a program when one or both objects are dereferences of a pointer The this pointer again comes into play to support the test For example:
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inline String& String::operator=( const String &rhs ) { // in expression // name1 = *pointer_to_string // this addresses name1, // rhs represents *pointer_to_string if ( this != &rhs ) {
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Here is the full implementation:
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inline String& String::operator=( const String &rhs ) { if ( this != &rhs ) { delete [] _string; _size = rhs_size; if ( ! rhs_string ) _string = 0; else { _string = new char[ _size + 1 ]; strcpy( _string, rhs_string );
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} } return *this; }
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The subscript operator is nearly identical to the one we implemented for our Array class of Section 23:
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#include <cassert> inline char& String::operator[]( int elem ) { assert( elem >= 0 && elem < _size ); return _string[ elem ]; }
The input and output operators are implemented as nonmember functions (The reasons for this are discussed in Section 152 Sections 204 and 205 provide a detailed discussion of overloading the iostream output and input operators) Our input operator reads in a maximum of 4,095 characters setw() is a predefined iostream manipulator It reads a maximum of 1 less than the value passed to it, thereby guaranteeing that we don't overflow our inBuf character array To use it, we must include the iomanip header file ( 20 discusses setw() in detail)
#include <iomanip> inline istream& operator ( istream &io, String &s ) { // artificial limit of 4096 characters read const int limit_string_size = 4096; char inBuf[ limit_string_size ]; // setw() is part of iostream library // limits characters read to limit_string_size-1 io setw( limit_string_size ) inBuf; s = inBuf; // String::operator=( const char* ); return io; }
The output operator requires access to the underlying char* representation in order to display the String However, because it is not a member function of the class, it has no access privilege to _string There are two possible solutions: one is to grant special access permission to the output operator (this is done by declaring it to be a friend of the class we'll look at that in Section 152) The second is to provide an inline access function in this case, c_str(), modeled on the solution provided by the standard library string class Here is our implementation:
inline ostream& operator ( ostream& os, String &s ) { return os sc_str(); }
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