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Viable Functions and User-Defined Conversion Sequences Inheritance also impacts the second step of function overload resolution, that of selecting the viable functions that can be called from the set of candidate functions A viable function is a function for which there exists type conversions to convert each function call argument to the type of a corresponding, viable function parameter In Section 159, we describe how the designer of a class can provide a bset of user-defined conversions for objects of class type These user-defined conversions are invoked implicitly by the compiler to convert the argument of a function call to a corresponding, viable function parameter A user-defined conversion is either a conversion function or a nonexplicit constructor taking one argument With inheritance, a greater set of user-defined conversions is considered during the second step of function overload resolution Conversion functions are inherited like any other class member functions For example, we may decide to define a conversion function for the class ZooAnimal as follows:
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class ZooAnimal { public: // conversion: ZooAnimal ==> const char* operator const char*(); // };
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The derived class Bear inherits this conversion function from its base class ZooAnimal Whenever a value of type Bear is used where an operand of type const char* is expected, the conversion function is called to convert the Bear value implicitly to the type const char* For example:
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extern void display( const char* ); Bear yogi; // ok: yogi ==> const char* display( yogi );
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Nonexplicit constructors taking one argument define another set of implicit conversions A constructor can convert a value of its parameter type to its class type For example, we may decide to define a constructor for the class ZooAnimal as follows:
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class ZooAnimal { public: // conversion: int ==> ZooAnimal ZooAnimal( int ); // };
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This constructor can be used to convert an integer value to a value of type ZooAnimal Constructors are not inherited however The ZooAnimal constructor cannot be used to convert an object when a class type derived from ZooAnimal is needed For example:
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const int cageNumber = 8788; void mumble( const Bear & );
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// error: ZooAnimal( int ) is not used mumble( cageNumber );
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Because the class type that is the target of the conversion is class Bear, the type of mumble()'s parameter, only the constructors within the class Bear are considered Best Viable Function Inheritance also impacts the third step of the function overload resolution, that of selecting the best viable function To select the best viable function, the type conversions that can convert the arguments to the type of the corresponding function parameters are ranked What is the rank of the following implicit conversions 1 Converting an argument of a derived class type to a parameter of any of its base class types 2 Converting a pointer to a derived class type to a pointer to any of its base class types 3 Initializing a reference to a base class type with an lvalue of a derived class type When ranking the conversions applied to function arguments, these conversions have the rank of a standard conversion (The other standard conversions are described in Section 93) These conversions are not user-defined conversions because they do not depend on the conversion functions and constructors defined by the class designer For example:
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extern void release( const ZooAnimal& ); Panda yinYang; // standard conversion: Panda -> ZooAnimal release( yinYang );
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Because the argument yinYang of type Panda initializes a reference to a base class type, the conversion has the rank of a standard conversion In Section 1510, we saw that a standard conversion sequence is better than a user-defined conversion sequence when ranking type conversions to select the best viable function For example:
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class Panda : public Bear, public Endangered { // inherits ZooAnimal::operator const char *() }; Panda yinYang; extern void release( const ZooAnimal& ); extern void release( const char * ); // standard conversion: Panda -> ZooAnimal // selects: release( const ZooAnimal& ) release( yinYang );
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Both release(const char*) and release(const ZooAnimal&) are viable functions The function release(const ZooAnimal&) is a viable function because the argument can initialize the reference parameter through a standard conversion The
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