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public: double cost( double, double ) throw ( overflow_error ); // }; // error: exception specification differs from // the declaration in the class member list double transport::cost( double rate, double distance ) { }
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A virtual function in a base class may have an exception specification that differs from the exception specification of the member function that overrides it in a derived class However, the exception specification of the derived class virtual function must be either equally or more restrictive than the exception specification of the base class virtual function For example:
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class Base { public: virtual double f1( double ) throw (); virtual int f2( int ) throw ( int ); virtual string f3( ) throw ( int, string ); // }; class Derived : public Base { public: // error: exception specification is less restrictive // than base::f1()'s double f1( double ) throw ( string ); // ok: same exception specification as base::f2() int f2( int ) throw ( int ); // ok: derived f3() is more restrictive string f3( ) throw ( int ); // };
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Why must the exception specification of the derived class member function be as restrictive or more restrictive than the base class function This ensures that when the derived virtual function is called through a pointer to a base class type, the call is guaranteed not to violate the exception specification of the base class member function For example:
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// guarantees not to throw exceptions void compute( Base *pb ) throw() { try { pb->f3( ); // may throw exception of type int or string } // handles exceptions from Base::f3() catch ( const string & ) { } catch ( int ) { } }
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The declaration of f3() in class Base guarantees that the function may only throw exceptions of type string or of type int The function compute() is programmed to take advantage of this guarantee and only defines catch clauses to handle these exceptions
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Because f3() in Derived is more restrictive than f3() in Base, our expectations when programming to the Base class interface are never violated Finally, in 11 we mention that no type conversion is allowed between the type of the exception thrown and a type specified in the exception specification There is a small exception to this rule: when the exception specification specifies a class type or a pointer to a class type If an exception specification specifies a class, then the function may throw exception objects of a class publicly derived from the class type in the exception specification (Similarly for pointers, if an exception specification specifies a pointer to a class, the function may throw exception objects that are pointers to a class publicly derived from this class type) For example:
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class stackExcp : public Excp { }; class popOnEmpty : public stackExcp { }; class pushOnFull : public stackExcp { }; void stackManip() throw( stackExcp ) { // }
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The exception specification not only indicates that stackManip() may throw an exception of type stackExcp, but that it may also throw an exception of type popOnEmpty or pushOnFull Recall that a class publicly derived from a base class reflects an is-a relationship and provides a specialization of its more general base class Because the popOnEmpty and pushOnFull eceptions are a kind of stackExcp, these exceptions do not violate the exception specification of stackManip() Constructors and Function try Blocks It is possible to declare a function such that the entire body of the function is contained within a try block Such a try block is called a function try block (we first discuss function try blocks in Section 112) For example:
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int main() try { // main()'s function body } catch ( pushOnFull ) { // } catch ( popOnEmpty ) { // }
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A function try block associates a group of catch clauses with a function body If a statement within the function body throws an exception, the handlers that follow the function body are considered to handle the exception A function try block becomes necessary with class constructors Let's examine why A constructor definition has the following form:
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class_name( parameter_list ) // member initialization list: : member1( expression1 ) , // initialization for member1 member2( expression2 ) // initialization for member2 // function body:
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