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// invokes output operator for LongDouble qld->remove(); // }
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The exact location where a template is instantiated is called the template's point of instantiation Knowing where a template's point of instantiation is located is important because it determines which declarations are considered for the names that depend on a template parameter A class template point of instantiation is always in namespace scope and it always imm diately precedes the declaration or definition that refers to the class template instantiation The point of instantiation of a member function or a static data member of a class template always immediately follows the declaration or definition that refers to the instantiation of the member of the class template In the previous example, the point of instantiation of Queue<LongDouble> immediately precedes main(), and the compiler considers all the declarations before this point to resolve the names dependent on the template parameter that are used in the definition of template Queue The point of instantiation of the member function remove() immediately follows main(), and the compiler considers all the declarations before this point to resolve the names dependent on the template parameter and used in the definition of the member function remove() As mentioned in Section 162, a class template is instantiated if it is used in a context that requires a complete class definition The members of a class template instantiation are not instantiated automatically when the class template is instantiated Instead, the members are instantiated only when they themselves are used in the program Because of this, the point of instantiation of a class template may be different from the point of instantiation of its members, and different members will have different points of instantiation To prevent errors, declarations for names used in the definition of a class template and in the definitions of its members should be placed in header files, and included before the first instantiation of the class template and before the instantiation of any of its members
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As with any other global scope definitions, a class template definition can be placed in a namespace (See Sections 85 and 86 for a discussion of namespaces) The meaning of such a template definition is the same as when the template is defined in global scope, except that the name of the template is hidden within the namespace The template name must either be qualified by the namespace name when the template is used outside its namespace, or a using declaration must be provided For example:
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#include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> namespace cplusplus_primer { template <class Type> class Queue { // }; template <class Type> Type Queue<Type>::remove() { // } }
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The class template name Queue must be qualified by the namespace name cplusplus_primer when it is used outside of the namespace, or be introduced through a using declaration The class template Queue is otherwise used as described earlier in this chapter it is instantiated in the same way, and it may have member functions, static data members, and nested types, and so forth For example:
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file:///F|/WinDDK/resources/CPPPrimer/c++primerhtm (786 / 1065) [2001-3-29 11:32:12]
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int main() { using cplusplus_primer::Queue; // using declaration // refers to the namespace cplusplus_primer's class template Queue<tint> *p_qi = new Queue<int>; // p_qi->remove(); }
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The template cplusplus_primer::Queue is instantiated because of its use by the new expression
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= new Queue<int>;
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p_qi is a pointer to the class type cplusplus_primer::Queue< int> When this pointer is used to refer to the member function remove(), it refers to the member function remove() of this template instantiation Declaring a class template within a namespace also impacts how specializations and partial specializations for the class template and its members are declared (Specializations are discussed in Section 169 and partial specializations in Section 1610) A specialization declaration for a class template or for a member of a class template must be declared in the namespace where the generic template is defined In the following example, specialization declarations for the class type Queue-< char*> and for the member function remove() of the class type Queue<double> are declared within the namespace cplusplus_primer
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#include <iostream> #include <cstdlib> namespace cplusplus_primer { template <class Type> class Queue { }; template <class Type> Type Queue<Type>::remove() { } // specialization declaration // for cplusplus_primer::Queue<char*> template<> class Queue<char*> { }; // specialization declaration for // cplusplus_primer::Queue<double>::remove() member function template<> double Queue<double>::remove() { } }
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Although the specializations are members of the namespace cplusplus_primer, their definitions do not have to appear within the namespace cplusplus_primer per se It is possible to define a template specialization outside its namespace's definition, provided that the definition appears in a namespace enclosing the namespace cplusplus_primer and provided that the name of the specialization is appropriately qualified with the namespace name For example:
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