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A default constructor is a constructor that is able to be invoked without user-specified arguments This does not mean that it cannot accept arguments It means only that a default value is associated with each parameter of the constructor For example, each of the following represents a default constructor:
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// each is a default constructor Account::Account() { } iStack::iStack( int size = 0 ) { } Complex::Complex(double re=00,double im=00) { }
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int main() { Account acct; // }
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the compiler first checks to see whether a default constructor for the Account class is defined One of the following occurs: 1 The default constructor is defined It is applied to acct 2 The default constructor is defined, but it is nonpublic The definition of acct is flagged at compile-time as an error: main() has no access privilege 3 No default constructor is defined, but one or more constructors requiring arguments is defined The definition of acct is flagged at compile-time as an error: too few constructor arguments 4 No default constructor is defined, nor any other constructor The definition is legal acct is uninitialized and no constructor is invoked Items 1 and 3 should be reasonably well understood at this point (if not, glance back through this chapter from the beginning until this point hopefully this does not result in an infinite reader loop!) Let's look a bit more closely at items 2 and 4 If our Account class declares all its members public and declares no constructor, such as the following,
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class Account{ public: char *_name; unsigned int _acct_nmbr; double _balance; };
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then the definition of each Account class object results in no class-specific initialization taking place The initial values of the three members depend on the context of each object definition Objects with static extent, such as the following,
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// static extent // each object's associated memory // is zeroed out Account global_scope_acct; static Account file_scope_acct; Account foo() { static Account local_static_acct; // }
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are guaranteed to have their members "zeroed out" (the same holds true for non-class objects) Objects defined either locally or allocated dynamically, however, are guaranteed to be filled initially with the random bits of the memory's previous use on the program's run-time stack For example:
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// local and heap objects are uninitialized // until either is initialized or assigned Account bar() { Account local_acct; Account *heap_acct = new Account; // }
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New users often mistakenly believe that the compiler generates and applies a default constructor automatically if one is not presentinitializing the class data members For our Account class as we've defined it, this is simply not true No default constructor is generated nor is one invoked For more complex classes containing class data members or making use of inheritance, this is partially true: A default constructor may be generated, but it does not provide initial values for data members of the built-in or compound types, such as pointers and arrays If we want class data members of the built-in and compound types to be initialized, we must do so explicitly in one or a set of constructors Without doing so, it is next to impossible to distinguish between a valid and uninitialized value associated with the data members of the built-in and compound types of local and dynamically allocated class objects3">[3]
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For those who previously programmed in C, this definition of Account behaves exactly as if, in C, we had written
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typedef struct { char *_name; unsigned int _acct_nmbr; double _balance; } Account;
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Constraining Object Creation The accessibility of a constructor is determined by the access section in which it is declared We can limit or explicitly forbid certain forms of object creation by placing the associated constructor in a nonpublic access section In this example, the default Account
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