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private: short _height; }; int verify(int); void Screen::setHeight( int var ) { // var: refers to the parameter // _height: refers to the class member // verify: refers to the global function _height = verify( var ); }
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Notice that the declaration of the global function verify() is not visible before the definition of the class Screen However, the third step of name resolution considers the namespace scope declarations visible before the member definition, and the declaration for the global function verify() is found A name used within the definition of a class static member is resolved as follows: 1 The declarations for all class members are considered 2 If the resolution in step 1 is not successful, the declarations that appear in namespace scope before the static member definition are considered During step 2, the compiler considers the namespace scope declarations that appear before the static data member definition, and not just those that appear before the class definition
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Exercise 1318
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Name the portions of program text that are considered in class scope
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Exercise 1319
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Name the portions of program text that are in class scope and for which the completed scope of the class is considered (that is, for which all the members declared in the class body are considered)
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Exercise 1320
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To which declarations does the name Type refer when used in the body of class Exercise and in the definition of its member function setVal() (Remember, different uses may refer to difference declarations) To which declarations does the name initVal refer when used in the definition of the member function setVal()
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typedef int Type; Type initVal(); class Exercise { public: // typedef double Type; Type setVal( Type ); Type initVal(); private: int val; };
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Type Exercise::setVal( Type parm ) { val = parm + initVal(); }
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The definition of the member function setVal() is in error Can you see why Apply the necessary changes so that the class Exercise uses the global typedef Type and the global function initVal()
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Nested Classes
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A class can be defined within another class Such a class is called a nested class A nested class is a member of its enclosing class The definition of a nested class can occur within a public, protected, or private section of its enclosing class The name of a nested class is visible in its enclosing class scope, but not in other class scopes or in namespace scopes This means that the name of a nested class does not collide with the same name declared in an enclosing scope For example:
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class Node { /* */ }; class Tree { public: // Node is encapsulated within the scope of Tree // Within class scope Tree::Node hides ::Node class Node {}; // ok: resolves to nested class: Tree::Node Node *tree; }; // Tree::Node is not visible at global scope // Node resolves to global declaration of Node Node *pnode; class List { public: // Node is encapsulated within the scope of List // Within class scope List::Node hides ::Node class Node {}; // ok: resolves to class: List::Node Node *list; };
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A nested class can have the same kinds of members as a nonnested class:
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// Not ideal configuration: class List { public: class ListItem { friend class List; ListItem( int val = 0 ); ListItem *next; int value; }; // private:
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evolving class definition
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// friend declaration // constructor // pointer to its own class
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ListItem *list; ListItem *at_end; };
A private member is a member that can be accessed only by the definitions of the members and friends of its class An enclosing class has no access privileges to the private members of a nested class unless it is declared as a friend of the nested class This is why ListItem declares List to be a friend, to allow the member definitions of List to access the private members of ListItem Nor does the nested class have any special access privileges to the private members of its enclosing class If we wanted to grant List-Item access to the private members of class List, the enclosing class List would have to declare the nested class ListItem as a friend In the previous example it is not a friend, and therefore ListItem cannot refer to the private members of List Declaring the class ListItem as a public member of class List means that the nested class can be used as a type within the entire program outside the definitions of members and friends of class List For example:
// ok: declaration in global scope List::ListItem *headptr;
This is more permissive than we intended The nested class ListItem supports the abstraction of our List class and we do not want the ListItem type to be accessible to the entire program A better design, then, is to define the nested class ListItem as a private member of class List:
// Not ideal configuration: evolving class definition class List { public: // private: class ListItem { // }; ListItem *list; ListItem *at_end; };
Now, only the definitions of the members and friends of List can access the type ListItem There is no longer any harm in making all members of the class ListItem public Because the class is a private member of List, only members and friends of the List class can access the members of ListItem With this new design, the friend declaration is no longer needed Here is our new definition for class List:
// Ok, now we got it! class List { public: // private: // ListItem is now a private nested type class ListItem { // and its members are now public public:
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