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The class Screen also defines two access functions height() and width() which also take no parameters and have a return type of int:
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inline int Screen::height() { return _height; } inline int Screen::width() { return _width; }
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The assignment of either the height() or width() member function to pfi, however, is a type violation, and a compile-time error is generated:
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// illegal assignment: type violation pfi = &Screen::height;
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Why is there a type violation A member function has an additional type attribute absent from a nonmember function its class A pointer to a member function must match the type of the function it is assigned, not in two but in three areas: (1) the type and number of parameters, (2) the return type, and (3) the class type of which it is a member The type mismatch between a pointer to member function and a pointer to function is due to the difference in representation between these two kinds of pointers A pointer to function stores the address of a function and can be used directly to call that function (Pointers to functions are discussed in Section 79) A pointer to member function must first be bound to an object or a pointer to obtain a this pointer for the function invocation before the function to which it refers can be called (In the next subsection we see how a pointer to member function is bound to an object or a pointer to call a member function) Although both an ordinary pointer to function and a pointer to member function are called pointers, they are different beasts The declaration of a pointer to member function requires an expanded syntax that takes the class type into account The same also holds true for pointers to class data members Consider the type of the Screen class member _height Its complete type is "member of class Screen of type short" Consequently, the complete type of a pointer to _height is "pointer to member of class Screen of type short" This is written as follows:
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short Screen::*
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A definition of a pointer to a member of class Screen of type short looks like this:
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short Screen::*ps_Screen;
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ps_Screen can be initialized with the address of _height as follows:
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short Screen::*ps_Screen = &Screen::_height;
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Similarly, it can be assigned the address of _width like this:
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ps_Screen = &Screen::_width;
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ps_Screen may be set to either _width or _height since both are Screen class data members of type short The type mismatch between a pointer to data member and an ordinary pointer is also due to the difference in representation between these two kinds of pointers An ordinary pointer contains all the information needed to refer to an object A pointer to data member must first be bound to an object or a pointer before it can be used to access the data member (In the next subsection, we see how a pointer to data member is bound to an object or pointer) (The companion text to C++ Primer, Inside the C++ Object Model ([LIPPMAN96a]), also discusses pointer to member representations) A pointer to member function is defined by specifying the function return type, parameter list, and class For example, a pointer to a Screen member function capable of referring to the member functions height() and width() has the following type:
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int (Screen::*)()
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this type specifies a pointer to a member function of class Screen taking no parameters and returning a value of type int A pointer to a member function can be declared, initialized, and assigned, as follows:
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// all pointers to class member may be assigned the value 0 int (Screen::*pmf1)() = 0; int (Screen::*pmf2)() = &Screen::height; pmf1 = pmf2; pmf2 = &Screen::width;
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The use of a typedef can make the pointer-to-member syntax easier to read For example, the following typedef defines Action to be an alternative type name for the following type
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Screen& (Screen::*)()
that is, a pointer to a member function of class Screen taking no parameters and returning a reference to a Screen class object
typedef Screen& (Screen::*Action)(); Action default = &Screen::home; Action next = &Screen::forward;
A pointer to member function type may be used to declare function parameters and function return types A default argument may be specified for a parameter of type pointer to member function For example:
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