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int i; unsigned int ui; // ok: type deduced for T: int min5( 1024, i ); // template argument deduction fails: // two different types deduced for T min5( i, ui );
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To resolve the second call we could overload min5(), allowing for two different argument types:
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template <typename T, typename U> int min5( T, U );
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The following function call invokes an instantiation of this new function template:
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// ok: int min5( int, unsigned int ) min5( i, ui ); Unfortunately, the earlier call is now ambiguous: // error: ambiguous: two possible instantiations // from min5( T, T ) and min5( T, U ) min5( 1024, i );
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The second declaration of min5() allows for function arguments of two different types However, it does not require that they be different T and U can both be of type int in this case Both template declarations can be instantiated with a call in which the two function arguments have the same type The only way to indicate which function template is preferred and to disambiguate the call is to explicitly specify the template arguments (see Section 104 for a discussion of explicit template arguments) For example:
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// OK: instantiation from min5( T, U ) min5<int, int>( 1024, i );
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However, in this case, we can do away with overloading the function template altogether Because the set of calls handled by the min5(T,U) is a superset of those handled by min5(T,T), only the declaration min5(T,U) should be provided and min5(T,T) can be removed Therefore, as we explained at the beginning of 9, even though overloading is possible, we must be careful when designing overloaded functions and make sure that the overloading is necessary These design constraints also apply when we are defining overloaded function templates In some situations, even if two different function templates can be instantiated for a function call, the function call might still be unambiguous Given the following two template definitions for sum(), here is a situation in which the first template definition is preferred even if an instantiation can be generated from either of these function templates
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template <typename Type> Type sum( Type*, int );
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template <typename Type> Type sum( Type, int ); int ia[1024]; // Type == int ; sum<int>( int*, int ); // Type == int*; sum<int*>( int*, int ); int ival1 = sum<int>( ia, 1024 );
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Surprisingly enough, the preceding call is not ambiguous The template is instantiated using the first template definition The template definition that is the most specialized is chosen for the instantiation The template argument for Type is therefore int and not int* For one template to be more specialized than another, both templates must have the same name, the same number of parameters, and, for the corresponding function parameters with different types, such as T* and T earlier, one of the parameters must be able to accept a superset of the arguments that the corresponding parameter in the other template can accept For example, for the template sum(Type*,int), the first function parameter can match arguments only of pointer type For the template sum(Type,int), the first function parameter can match arguments of pointer type as well as arguments of any other type The second template accepts a superset of the types accepted by the first template The template that accepts the more limited set of arguments is said to be more specialized In our example, the template sum(Type*,int) is more specialized and is the template that is instantiated for the function call
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Overload Resolution with Instantiations
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As we saw in the previous section, a function template can be overloaded A function template can also have the same name as an ordinary nontemplate function For example:
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// function template template <class Type> Type sum( Type, int ) { /* */ } // ordinary (nontemplate) function double sum( double, double );
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When a program calls sum(), the call can be resolved either to an instantiation of the function template or to the ordinary function Which one is called depends on which one of these functions best matches the types of the function arguments The function overload resolution process, which was introduced in 9, is used to determine which function best matches the arguments on the function call For example, consider the following:
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void calc( int ii, double dd ) { // does it call the template instantiation // or the ordinary function sum( dd, ii ); }
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Does sum(dd,ii) call a function instantiated from the template, or does it call the ordinary non-template function To answer this question, let's step through the process of function overload resolution The first step of function overload resolution consists of building the set of candidate functions that can be called This set is made of functions that have the same name as the function that is called and for which a declaration is visible at the point of the call When a function template exists, an instantiation from that template is a candidate function if a function can be instantiated using the
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