Template Compilation Models in Java

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Template Compilation Models
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The definition of a function template serves as a prescription for the definition of an infinite set of function instances In itself, a template does not cause any function to be defined For example, when the implementation sees the template definition
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template <typename Type> Type min( Type t1, Type t2 ) { return t1 < t2 t1 : t2; }
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it stores an internal representation of min() but does not otherwise cause anything to happen Later, when the implementation sees an actual use of min(), such as
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int i, j; double dobj = min( i, j );
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it then instantiates an integer definition for min() from the template definition This brings up several questions For the compiler to be able to instantiate a function template, must the definition of the template be visible when an instantiation is called For example, must the definition of the function template min() appear before the integer
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instance of min() is used in the definition of dobj Do we place function template definitions in header files (as we do with inline function definitions) to be included everywhere function template instantiations are used Or can we provide function template declarations only in header files, placing the template definitions in text files (as we do with non-inline functions) To answer these questions, we must explain the C++ template compilation model, which specifies the requirements for the way programs that define and use templates must be organized C++ supports two template compilation models: the inclusion model and the separation model The rest of this section describes both models and explains how they are used Inclusion Compilation Model Under the inclusion compilation model, we include the definition of the function template in every file in which a template is instantiated, usually by placing the definition within a header file as we do with inline functions This is the model we have chosen to use in this book For example;
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// model1h: // inclusion model: // template definitions are placed in a header file template <typename Type> Type min( Type t1, Type t2 ) { return t1 < t2 t1 : t2; }
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This header file is included in every file in which an instantiation of min() is used For example:
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// template definitions are included before // template instantiations are used #include "model1h" int i, j; double dobj = min( i, j );
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The header file can be included in many of our program text files Does this imply that the compiler must instantiate the integer instance of min() in every file that calls the instantiation No The program must behave as if the integer instance of min() were instantiated only once However, when and where the instantiation actually takes place is up to the implementation For now, as far as we are concerned, we need to know only that the integer instance of min() is instantiated somewhere in our program (As we will see at the end of this section, it is possible to specify when and where template instantiations take place using an explicit instantiation declaration Such declarations must sometimes be used in the later stages of product development to improve the performance of our applications) There are some drawbacks in providing the function template definitions in a header file The body of a function template describes implementation details that our users may want to ignore or that we may want to hide from our users Indeed, if the definitions of our function templates are large, the level of detail present in the header file may be overwhelming Moreover, compiling the same function template definitions across multiple files can unnecessarily add to the compile-time of our programs The separation compilation model allows us to separate the declarations and definitions of our function templates Let's see how we might use it Separation Compilation Model Under the separation compilation model, the declarations of the function templates are placed in a header file and their definitions in a program text file Under this model, the function template declarations and definitions are organized in the same way we organize the non-inline function declarations and definitions of our programs For example:
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