SHF Available Communications Modes in Java

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SHF Available Communications Modes
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SHF communications modes include: High capacity microwave (FM/FDM, PPM, PWM, PCM/QAM (1.544, 2.048, . . . , 45, 90, 155, 622 Mbps)) Troposcatter (2 and 4.5 GHz bands, analog and digital) Spread spectrum, satellite CDMA, FH-DS hybrids, and OFDM
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Terrestrial SHF air interface modes include high capacity microwave, troposcatter, and spread spectrum communications. High Capacity Microwave Knowledge Chunk Point-to-point microwave radio was initially developed for high capacity backbone links of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). In the mid-1980s, digital microwave dominated this market but has largely been superseded by beroptics in developed economies. High capacity microwave retains niche applications in developing economies, in rugged terrain, for backup of primary ber links, for cable television (CATV) distribution, and for microwave backhaul of cellular telephone traf c. Backhaul operates between cellular base transmission station (BTS) and the base station controller (BSC) or mobile telephone switching of ce (MTSO). To keep costs low, CATV and backhaul may use analog FM/FDM or commodity digital radios (e.g., T- or E-carrier). Using That Knowledge: The SHF-aware AACR can explain historical and current applications of high capacity microwave radio to nonexperts and uses this knowledge to diagnose and mitigate interference in SHF <Scenes/>. Mobile Microwave Radio Trunking Knowledge Chunk Military markets and humanitarian relief employ mobile SHF microwave radio trunks for high capacity interconnect among deployable wireless base stations. Using That Knowledge: The mobile SHF-adaptive AACR can con gure itself for microwave radio trunking. It can advise the nonexpert user regarding antennas, siting, baseband switching, and RF interconnect for T- and Ecarrier trunking. T- and E-Carrier Air Interface Standards The high capacity microwave air interface includes the legacy analog formats FM/FDM, pulse position modulation (PPM), and pulse width modulation (PWM). Modern systems use PCM with BPSK, QPSK, QAM, and partial response channel symbols. QAM amplitude phase combinations range from 16 to 1024 in powers of 2, each requiring higher SNR. Data rates range from 128 kbps for military radios to T1 (1.544 Mbps), E1 (2.048 Mbps), and OC-1 (51.84 Mbps) multiples through the OC N level of the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) [144]. Packing OC-12 into a 30 MHz spectrum allocation requires multicarrier QAM hybrids like 4 256 QAM, needing 40 dB SNR, equalization, FEC, bit interleaving, and randomization for high computational complexity historically requiring ASIC hardware. Contemporary FPGAs and DSPs deliver equivalent GFLOPS, so low and medium data rate T- and E-carrier may be SDRs. The T- and E-carrier systems use Signaling System Seven (SS7) for dialing, call setup, switching, and PSTN interfaces.
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Using That Knowledge: The SHF-SDH-aware AACR can explain the SDH to nonexperts. It can con gure its processing, buffering, and interconnect for low to medium capacity microwave trunking with SS7 to cross-connect its wireless <User/> to the PSTN. Troposcatter Knowledge Chunk As illustrated in Figure 7-12, troposcatter is useful when transmitter and receiver are not within LoS of each other [170]. Each radio points at a scattering region in the troposphere where weak coupling mandates very large apertures (e.g., 10 meter dish), kilowatts of power, and diversity reception. Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of 90 dBm provides suf cient SNR for multichannel relay but can interfere with nearby wireless systems. The military troposcatter networks connect headquarters to clusters of geographically dispersed units with lower acquisition cost than satellite communications and with the ability to operate at extreme northern and southern latitudes. Air interface modes include FM/FDM, PPM, PWM, and PCM [172]. Using That Knowledge: The troposcatter-aware AACR can explain troposcatter systems to nonexperts. It recon gures RF, ltering, baseband, DSP, buffer memory, switching, and supervisory resources for troposcatter. With large antennas and powerful RF ampli ers, the troposcatter-adaptive CR replaces dedicated troposcatter IF, baseband, and supervisory radio functions with SDR. It also learns the best siting and con guration for QoI objectives while minimizing wireless interference. Microwave Spread Spectrum Knowledge Chunk The Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) occupies 250 MHz between 1 and 2 GHz [183]. JTIDS employs a 32 chip DSSS pseudonoise (PN) spreading sequence on each bit with instantaneous bandwidth of 3 MHz. Chip bursts hop across a 250 MHz agility band at over 1000 hops per second. Using That Knowledge: The JTIDS-aware AACR characterizes JTIDS networks to avoid interference. The JTIDS-adaptive AACR instantiates a waveform template for interoperability, permission to join the network, identi cation of network services, role, and security. SHF CDMA Knowledge Chunk The U.S. Defense Science Board s panel on wideband communications [184] recommended the expansion of high capacity spectrum sharing technologies like CDMA. Instantaneous CDMA bandwidths of tens of megahertz are practical at SHF. Wireless LANs, for example, use 50 MHz CDMA to overcome multipath and provide asynchronous multiple access. Satellite communications also use CDMA with FH-DS hybrids for error mitigation and privacy.
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