KNOWLEDGE OF THE SHF RADIO BAND in Java

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KNOWLEDGE OF THE SHF RADIO BAND
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Using That Knowledge: Radar-aware AACRs analyze and mitigate interference with <Self/> and CWN communications signals. The radar-expert CR synthesizes SHF waveforms with good information density and ambiguity surfaces for simultaneous communications and radar functions. 7.7.1.8 WLAN Hot-Spot Knowledge Chunk Cellular, PCS, and wireless local area networks use SHF spectrum near radar bands (e.g., the 5.4 GHz ISM bands) for small antennas, high directionality, and wide bandwidths for hot-spot applications. In hot spots, there are often many more radios than channels available (e.g., shopping malls and sporting events). Using That Knowledge: The AACR learns the locations and incremental costs of hot-spots to shape traf c for user objectives of lowest cost or timely delivery. It also might learn the best location for a palmtop video teleconference at, say, 128 kbps. 7.7.1.9 Doppler Shift Knowledge Chunk Doppler shift (e.g., from 400 mph aircraft) may exceed 1 kHz at 15 GHz. At frequency f, f = v c v so f = f v f for v << c c c
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(7-7)
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If a re ecting object moves away with velocity v, the distance is increasing, so the wavelength appears to be stretched and frequency is reduced. Table 7-3 shows Doppler shift for representative scenarios. At HF, the plasmas in the ionosphere often have an apparent velocity of 2000 mph or more, inducing Doppler shifts of up to 5 Hz. Doppler shift is proportional to the cosine of the angle between an aircraft or satellite ight path and the RF LoS. Short-range EHF links experience Doppler shifts of over 1 kHz. In addition, the total Doppler shift between two moving platforms can be double that shown in Table 7-3. The Doppler shift between a groundbased receiver and a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite at EHF decreases from +30 kHz to zero when the satellite is overhead and continues to decrease to
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TABLE 7-3 Application HF SHF ground EHF ground EHF LEO
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Doppler Shift Frequency 10 MHz 1 GHz 15 GHz 21 GHz Re ector Ionosphere Aircraft Aircraft Satellite Velocity 2,000 mph 500 mph 500 mph 10,000 mph Doppler Shift 3.259 Hz 81.48 Hz 1.22 kHz 34.2 kHz
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FIGURE 7-12
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Spectral multipath causes Rayleigh Rice fading.
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30 kHz as the satellite recedes. Doppler shifts, positive and negative, must be compensated by analog or digital carrier tracking loops. Using That Knowledge: The Doppler-expert iCR knows the equations for Doppler shift and can identify those objects in a scene that affect Doppler shift. It also learns about frequency shift phenomena by observing the environment. The Doppler-expert iCR applies this knowledge to enhance QoI, for example, by pointing the antenna away from the nearby air eld to minimize Doppler spreading of a HDR SHF channel. 7.7.2 Spatial Distribution of SHF Energy
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Spatial distribution of SHF energy includes troposcatter where a BLoS transmitter illuminates a point of refraction in the troposphere (Figure 7-12). LoS SHF communications over water encounter spectral re ections with Rayleigh or Rician probability distributions of multipath [183, 184]. 7.7.2.1 Rayleigh Fading Knowledge Chunk Rayleigh scattering induces hundreds to thousands of re ections of comparable signal strength with different time delay for apparently random phase of the received sinusoids. The Rayleigh fading model is a very good approximation for SHF scattering above 4 GHz. Below 4 GHz, however, the probability that the signal level is less than the abscissa is not as high as the Rayleigh model predicts. FEC mitigates Rayleigh fading if the fade duration at erasure depth is less than the b-burst error correction capability of the code. If erasures exceed the FEC-correctable time delay, then packets may be corrected with automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocols.
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KNOWLEDGE OF THE SHF RADIO BAND
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Using That Knowledge: The SHF-aware iCR knows the Rayleigh distribution of signal strength and uses that to predict fade depth and duration in a <Scene/>. It con gures FEC or ARQ protocols to accommodate the predicted fading, measuring actual fade depth (Eb /No during the fade) and duration to diagnose Rayleigh fading. The iCR recommends, synthesizes, and tests remedial actions in the eld collaborating via CWNs. 7.7.2.2 Rician Fading Knowledge Chunk Rice noted that the statistical structure of amplitude varies as a function of the number of strong multipath components, offering a model of amplitude distributions parameterized by the number of such strong paths. As the number of paths with approximately the same phase increases, the amplitude distribution becomes tighter and the variance of the amplitude distribution decreases. Using That Knowledge: The Rician-aware AACR can describe the difference between Rayleigh and Rician fading to a nonexpert and can employ that knowledge to diagnose link conditions and to mitigate fading. 7.7.2.3 SDR Mitigation of Fades SDR algorithms that mitigate Rayleigh Rice fading include FEC, ARQ protocols, and bridging the data clock across deep fades. Coherently combining energy from diversity antennas reduces fade depth. Cyclostationary processing at the frame rate enhances Eb /No for synchronously framed data links. Because of the statistical structure of fades, the rate of convergence of such algorithms varies and processing demands also vary with fade depth. The Gamma function estimates the rate at which fade mitigation processing resources may be exceeded. Using That Knowledge: The SHF-fade-aware AACR adapts the appropriate SDR waveform parameters to accommodate encountered fade statistics. It allocates SDR resources to remain within processing capacity and statistical limits. Collections of alternate mitigation algorithms gracefully adapt mitigation to the hardware platform.
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