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Explanation
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NCurses reads keyboard input through the terminal. This is known as cooked input mode as text input is buffered by the terminal and certain characters typed at the keyboard are intercepted and used for certain things. This all happens before the text is passed through to your NCurses program. Buffering refers to how text is read. The terminal uses line buffering, which stores a line of text and sends it to NCurses after \n is encountered. The special characters include, for example, the Killchar key used at the command prompt to erase a line of text or the Erasechar key used to delete text. The cbreak mode disables the line buffering and the trapping of keys such as Killchar and Erasechar.
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Man Page Format
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int cbreak(void); int nocbreak(void);
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The cbreak() command activates cbreak mode. The nocbreak() command restores cooked input mode (normal).
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Return Value
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OK upon success, ERR upon failure.
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Notes
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The settings that cbreak() and nocbreak() affect are inherited. That is, the settings may be on or off when your program starts. The only way to ensure that your program uses cbreak() mode input is to issue the cbreak() function in your code. Ditto for nocbreak(). The cbreak() setting overrides raw(). Even so, try to use either cbreak() or raw() functions, not both at the same time. See raw().
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Appendix A
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NCurses Library Reference
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The nocbreak() function also disables (or undoes) any delay set by the halfdelay() function. See halfdelay().
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Examples
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cbreak()
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Here, cbreak mode is set for the program.
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nocbreak()
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Here, the cbreak mode is cancelled.
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 #include <ncurses.h> int main(void) { int ch; initscr(); cbreak(); mvaddstr(0,0, Type away, cbreak mode is on: ); while( getch() != \n ) ; nocbreak(); mvaddstr(3,0, Type away, cbreak mode is off: ); while( getch() != \n ) ; endwin(); return 0; }
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Sample output:
Type away, cbreak mode is on:
You can t really determine the change in the line buffering, but try typing the kill/erase character. On my terminal, Ctrl-U is the Killchar key and typing it with cbreak mode on merely displays ^U on the screen. Similarly, pressing Delete displays ^ .
Type away, cbreak mode is off:
Try typing Killchar or Delete and the results are the same as if you typed them at the command prompt.
Appendix A
NCurses Library Reference
Also See
raw(), halfdelay()
chgat()
The chgat() function changes text attributes on the screen. New attributes specified replace any existing attributes without overwriting text. In fact, the advantage of using chgat() is that it lets you change text attributes without having to rewrite that bit of text.
Man Page Formats
int chgat(int n, attr_t attr, short color, const void *opts); int wchgat(WINDOW *win, int n, attr_t attr,short color, const void *opts) int mvchgat(int y, int x, int n, attr_t attr,short color, const void *opts) int mvwchgat(WINDOW *win, int y, int x, int n,attr_t attr, short color, const void *opts)
Format Reference
n is the number of characters chgat() affects. When n is -1, then all characters from the cursor s current position to the end of the line are affected. When 0 is specified, no text is changed. Otherwise, the new attributes are applied to n number of characters from the cursor s current position and to the right. When n is greater than the window width, the window width is assumed. attr is an NCurses attr_t type (long int) value representing text attributes to be applied. Refer to attrset() for a list of attr_t constants as defined in NCURSES.H. color is short int representing the number of a COLOR_PAIR defined by the init_pair function. Note that color is the pair number itself, not the COLOR_PAIR(n) thing. NULL is required for the opts argument, which is currently not defined in NCurses. Refer to the mv, mvw, and w prefix entries elsewhere in this appendix for information on the win, row, and col arguments.