ADAPTIVE BACKBONE MULTICAST ROUTING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS in .NET

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ADAPTIVE BACKBONE MULTICAST ROUTING FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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ALGORITHM 2. Node i Piggybacking COREINFO and COREREQUEST
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Input: h outgoing Hello Output: outgoing Hello with piggybacked info
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5: Begin: 6: coreInfo {} 7: coreReq {} 8: if parenti = i then /* i is a core */ 9: for each cid, nextHop, hops in CITi do 10: d distance to the core cid from i 11: best best next hop to the core cid from i 12: if d > 1 then 13: coreReq coreReq { cid, best } 14: end if 15: end for 16: else /* i is not a core */ 17: for each cid, requester in CRTi do 18: best best next hop to the core cid from i 19: coreReq coreReq { cid, best } 20: end for 21: for each cid, nextHop, hops in CITi do 22: d distance to the core cid from i 23: coreInfo coreInfo { cid, d } 24: end for 25: end if 26: piggyback coreInfo and coreReq onto h 27: return h
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lower core IDs than its own and inserts/updates the corresponding entries in CITj using i as the nextHop eld as long as the following two conditions hold: (1) Nodes i and j belong to the same core, and (2) the distance from node j to the core is less than that of node i. Lines 18 21 of Algorithm 1 denote these steps. Nodes that are not cores that and have nonempty CIT tables must always generate and piggyback CoreInfo tables onto outgoing Hello packets so that each core can collect all information it needs and establish connectivity to nearby cores (again, in lines 21 24 of Algorithm 2). Due to the dynamics of the core selection process and the network topology itself, the CIT table is kept updated by having each node remove all the entries with nextHop eld set to k when it receives a link failure noti cation regarding to the node k. In addition, it also removes all the entries in CIT that match the pattern c, k, when it hears a CoreInfo from k without any entry regarding the core c. Once a core has had information about other surrounding cores stored in its CIT table, it is able to initiate the connection request to those cores by piggybacking a
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ADAPTIVE DYNAMIC BACKBONE MULTICAST (ADBM)
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CoreRequest table onto each of its outgoing Hello packets. A CoreRequest table contains a list of entries coreId,nextHop , each of which indicates which node is being requested to connect to each unique core from the CIT table, as shown in lines 8 15 of Algorithm 2. Similar to the construction of a CoreInfo table, only one next hop with the shortest distance in terms of the number of hops is chosen for each core. Entries from CIT with one hop count are excluded from the CoreRequest table since they represent other cores with direct contact, which do not require any intermediate nodes with which to establish connectivity. When node i receives a Hello packet containing a CoreRequest table from node j, node i checks for entries where its ID appears on the nextHop eld. For each entry c, i found in the CoreRequest, node i inserts into CRTi (Core Request Table) an entry with coreId and requester set to c and j, respectively (Algorithm 1, lines 23 25). Each node i that is not a core and has at least one entry in its CRTi is required to construct a CoreRequest table with entries corresponding to all the cores in CRTi (Algorithm 2, lines 17 20). For each entry c, nc in the CoreRequest table that node i is to generate, if node c is the current core of node i, node i will use parenti as the value of nc ; otherwise, node i will consult its CITi for the best next hop to node c. Similar to the maintenance of CIT, when node i detects that the link to node k has failed, node i removes from CRTi all the entries whose requester elds are equal to k. If CRTi contains an entry c, k but node i hears a CoreRequest table from node k without an entry c, i , the entry c, k is removed from CRTi . Node i determines if it is currently on the backbone by checking if it is either a core (parenti = i) or an intermediate node (|CRTi | > 0). These nodes on the backbone play an important role for facilitating multicast operations, which will be described in the next section. 6.2.2 Group Joining The group joining mechanism in ADBM is based on the concept of rendezvous points, where control messages are directed toward the core of the group instead of being broadcast to other irrelevant nodes or the entire network. Here, the rendezvous point for every node is not a single node, but it consists of the cores that have already formed a connected backbone as a result from ADB. A node that is willing to join a multicast group sends a request toward its core via its parents. Intermediate nodes that receive and forward these requests then become forwarding nodes for the group, which, together with the connected backbone, eventually form multicast connectivity among all group members. We explain the group joining operation in more details as follows. In addition to the data structures for ADB described in Section 6.2.1, each node maintains a join table that has the same structure as a core request table (Table 6.3) with a group ID eld instead of a core ID, as shown in Table 6.4. For node i, its join table is denoted by JTi . Node i, which is willing to join a multicast group, informs its parent by piggybacking a JoinRequest, along with its parent ID, parenti , onto its outgoing Hello packets. The JoinRequest contains a list of all multicast group
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