A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS in .NET framework

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A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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is considerably reduced. If the source node has no information about the speed and the direction of the destination node, the entire network is considered as the expected zone. Before sending a packet, a source node determines the location of the destination node and de nes its request zone, the zone in which it initiates ooding with the route request packets. In some cases, the nodes outside the request zone may also be included. If the source node is not inside the destination node s expected zone, the request zone has to be increased to accommodate the source node. Also, a situation may occur where all neighboring nodes of the destination node may be located outside the request zone. In this case, the request zone has to be increased to include as many neighboring nodes as possible. LAR de nes two schemes to identify whether a node is within the request zone. r Scheme 1. In this scheme, the source node simply includes the smallest rectangle containing the current location of the source node and the expected zone of the destination node based on its initial location and current speed. The speed factor may be varied to either include the current speed or the maximum obtainable speed within the network. This expected zone will be a circle centered at the initial location of the destination node with a radius dependent on its speed of the movement. The source node sends the route request packets with the coordinates of the entire rectangle. The nodes receiving these packets check to see whether their own locations are within the zone. If so, they forward the packet using the regular ooding algorithm; otherwise, the packets are simply dropped. r Scheme 2. Here, the source node calculates the distance between itself and the destination node based on the GPS coordinates and includes these values within the route request packets. An intermediary node receiving this packet calculates its distance from the destination. If its distance from the destination is greater than that of the source, the intermediary node is not within the request zone and hence drops the packet. Otherwise, it forwards the packet to all its neighbors. LAR essentially describes how location information such as GPS can be used to reduce the routing overhead in an ad hoc network and ensure maximum connectivity. See Figure 5.10. Distance Routing Effect Algorithm for Mobility (DREAM) [31]. The DREAM protocol (Algorithm 3) also uses the node location information from GPS systems for communication. DREAM is a part proactive and part reactive protocol where the source node sends the data packet in the direction of the destination node by selective ooding. The difference from the other location-based protocols is that only the data packets are forwarded to the next hop neighbor, not the control packets. Each node maintains a table with the location information of each node, and the periodic location updates are distributed among the nodes to keep this information as up-to-date as possible. Collectively updating location table entries indicates the proactive nature of the protocol, while the fact that all intermediate nodes in a
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AD HOC NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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Figure 5.10. LAR routing protocol. The diagrams (a) and (b) present LAR1 and LAR2 schemes [29, 30].
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route perform a lookup and forward the data packet in the general direction of the destination re ects DREAM s reactive properties. DREAM is based on two classical observations: the distance effect and the mobility effect. The distance effect states that the greater the distance between two nodes, the slower they appear to move with respect to each other. Hence, the location information tables can be updated depending on the distance between the nodes without making any concessions on the routing accuracy. Two nodes situated farther apart view the other to be moving relatively slowly, requiring less frequent location updates compared with nodes closer to each other. The mobility effect determines how often the location information packets can be generated and forwarded. In an ideal scenario, whenever a node moves, it should update entire the network but not generate any packets if it remains idle. However, a node keeps generating location update packets at periodic intervals that can be a function of the node s mobility. Thus, the nodes with higher mobility generate more frequent location update messages. This allows
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ALGORITHM 3. DREAM Routing Protocol: Send Procedure [31] // LT = Location Table Find destination node from packet header D if (no LT entry for D or the information is not valid) invoke recovery mode else nd existing neighbors from the LT if no neighbors exist invoke recovery mode else set the timer when the packet is forwarded transmit the packet to all the neighbors end if end if
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