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During the packet forwarding process, the destination is checked to see if it is within the forwarding node s neighbor scope. If so, the packet is directly forwarded to the address obtained from the routing table. On the other hand, if the packet s destination node is much farther, the packet is rst routed to its nearest landmark node. As the packet gets closer to its destination, it acquires more accurate routing information; thus in some cases it may bypass the landmark node and become routed directly to its destination. The link state update process is again similar to the FSR protocol. Nodes exchange topology updates with their one-hop neighbors. A distance vector, which is calculated based on the number of landmarks, is added to each update packet. As a result of this process, the routing tables entries with smaller sequence numbers are replaced with larger ones. Relative Distance Micro-discovery Ad Hoc Routing (RDMAR) [25]. The RDMAR protocol is very similar to existing reactive protocols since it uses the two standard phases of route discovery and route maintenance. However, route discovery broadcast messages are limited by a maximum number of hops which is calculated using the relative distance between the source and destination. Each node also maintains a routing table that contains the next hop neighbor of each known destination, an estimated relative distance between all known source and destination nodes, a timestamp at which the current entry was made, a timeout eld indicating the time at which a particular route is no longer active, and a ag specifying if a route still exists or not. The estimated distances are measured by the source nodes using the last known distance between the respective nodes, the last time when the route was updated, and also the estimated speed of the destination node. Each node also maintains two other data structures: (a) a data retransmission buffer that queues data being transmitted until an explicit acknowledgment is received and (b) a route request table that stores all necessary information which pertains to the most recent route discovery. Route discovery and route maintenance is carried out by broadcasting route request packets and expecting a route reply packet from the destination. Each node also occasionally probes for bidirectional links by sending a packet on the link where it has just received a packet. Route maintenance is performed when a route failure occurs and the node re-sends the data up to a maximum number of retries. This is why the intermediate nodes buffer data packets until they receive link level acknowledgments from the next hop node. When a link failure occurs at an intermediate node close to the destination, this node sets the emergency ag in its route request packets such that it increases the possibility of a faster recovery time. If, however, the route has completely failed, the intermediate node forwards a failure noti cation to the source node by unicasting it to all neighboring nodes involved. When a node receives a failure noti cation, it updates its routing tables accordingly. Scalable Location Update-Based Routing Protocol (SLURP) [26]. The SLURP focuses on developing an architecture scalable to large-size networks. A location update mechanism maintains location information of the nodes in a
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decentralized fashion by mapping node IDs to speci c geographic subregions of the network where any node located in this region is responsible for storing the current location information for all the nodes situated within that region. When a sender wishes to send a packet to a destination, it rst queries nodes in the same geographic subregion of the destination to get a rough estimate of its position. It then uses a simple geographic routing protocol to send the data packets. Since the location update cost is dependent on the speed of the nodes, for high speeds, a larger number of location update messages are generated. By theoretical analysis, it is shown that the routing overhead scales as O(v) where v is the average node speed and that it and also scales as O(N 3/2 ) where N is the number of nodes within the network. It can be noted that the routing packet overhead scales linearly with respect to node speeds and with N 3/2 with the present number of nodes within the network. A4 LP Routing Protocol [27, 28]. A4 LP is speci cally designed to work in networks with asymmetric links. The routes to In-, Out-, and In/Out-bound neighbors are maintained by periodic neighbor update and immediately available upon request, while the routes to other nodes in the network are obtained by a path discovery protocol. A4 LP proposes an advanced ooding technique: m-limited forwarding. Receivers can rebroadcast a packet only if it quali es a certain tness value speci ed by the sender. The ooding cost is reduced and shortest high-quality path is likely to be selected by using m-limited forwarding. Moreover, the metrics used to choose from multiple paths are based on the power consumed per packet and transmission latency. A4 LP, is also both location- and power-aware routing protocol supporting asymmetric links that may be suitable for heterogeneous MANET. 5.4.4 Location-Aware Protocols Location-aware routing schemes in mobile ad hoc networks assume that the individual nodes are aware of the locations of all the nodes within the network. The best and easiest technique is the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine exact coordinates of these nodes in any geographical location. This location information is then utilized by the routing protocol to determine the routes. Location-Aided Routing (LAR) [29, 30]. The LAR protocol suggests an approach that utilizes location information to minimize the search space for route discovery toward the destination node. The aim of this protocol is to reduce the routing overhead for the route discovery, and it uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to obtain the location information of a node. The intuition behind using location information to route packets is very simple and effective. Once the source node knows the location of the destination node and also has some information of its mobility characteristics such as the direction and speed of movement of the destination node, the source sends route requests to nodes only in the expected zone of the destination node. Since these route requests are ooded throughout the nodes in the expected zone only, the control packet overhead
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