ALGORITHMS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS in VS .NET

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ALGORITHMS FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
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structure (table) to store the source routes learned by the node. The discovery process is only initiated by a source node whenever it does not have a valid route to a given destination node in its route cache. Entries in the route cache are continually updated as new routes are learned. Whenever a node wants to know a route to a destination, it broadcasts a route request (RREQ) message to its neighbors. A neighboring node receives this message, updates its own table, appends its identi cation to the message and forwards it, accumulating the traversed path in the RREQ message. A destination node responds to the source node with a route reply (RREP) message, containing the accumulated source route present in the RREQ. Nodes in DSR maintain multiple routes to a destination in the cache, which is helpful in case of a link failure. The AODV protocol keeps a route table to store the next-hop routing information for destination nodes. Each routing table can be used for a period of time. If a route is not requested within that period, it expires and a new route needs to be found when needed. Each time a route is used, its lifetime is updated. When a source node has a packet to be sent to a given destination, it looks for a route in its route table. In case there is one, it uses it to transmit the packet. Otherwise, it initiates a route discovery procedure to nd a route by broadcasting a route request (RREQ) message to its neighbors. Upon receiving a RREQ message, a node performs the following actions: checks for duplicate messages and discards the duplicate ones, creates a reverse route to the source node (the node from which it received the RREQ is the next hop to the source node), and checks whether it has an unexpired and more recent route to the destination (compared to the one at the source node). In case those two conditions hold, the node replies to the source node with a RREP message containing the last known route to the destination. Otherwise, it retransmits the RREQ message.
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Some Comments. An important question is to determine the best routing protocol to be used in a MANET. This is not a simple issue, and the identi cation of the most appropriate algorithm depends on different factors such as QoS guarantees, scalability, and traf c and mobility pattern. Reactive protocols tend to be more ef cient than proactive protocols in terms of control overhead and power consumption because routes are only created when required. On the other hand, proactive protocols need periodic route updates to keep information updated and valid. In addition, many available routes might never be needed, which increases the routing overhead. Proactive protocols tend to provide better quality of service than reactive protocols. In this class of protocols, routing information is kept updated; thus, a route to a given destination is available and up-to-date, which minimizes the end-to-end delay. Royer and Toh [15] present a comparison of these protocols in terms of their complexity, route update patterns, and capabilities. The above classi cation is very broad, and there are other taxonomies to categorize routing protocols [24]. For instance, there are protocols that use a hybrid scheme to route messages; that is, they try to combine the advantages of some protocols, whereas there are protocols that use the node s geographical location to route messages. It is interesting to observe that some IETF MANET Internet Drafts [mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs)] have reached a reasonable level of maturity, analysis, and
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MANETS: AN ALGORITHMIC PERSPECTIVE
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implementation experience and became IETF standards. This includes the proactive protocols Optimized Link-State Routing (OLSR) [20] and Topology DisseminationBased Reverse Path Forwarding (TBRPF) [21] and the reactive protocols Distributed Source Routing (DSR) [22] and Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [23]. 1.3.4 Multicasting and Broadcasting An important aspect in the design of a routing protocol is the type of communication mode allowed between peer entities. Routing protocols for a MANET can be unicast, geocast, multicast, or broadcast. Unicast is the delivery of messages to a single destination. Geocast is the delivery of messages to a group of destinations identi ed by their geographical locations. Multicast is the delivery of messages to a group of destinations in such a way that it creates copies only when the links to the destinations split. Finally, broadcast is the delivery of a message to all nodes in the network. Notice that, broadly speaking, there are two types of physical transmission technology that are largely used: broadcast links and point-to-point links. In a network with a single broadcast channel, all communicating elements share it during their transmissions. In a network that employs a wireless medium, which is the case of a mobile ad hoc network, broadcast is a basic operation mode whereby a message is received by all the source node s neighbors. In a MANET, the four communication modes that can be implemented by a routing protocol are realized by a wireless broadcast channel. A multicast routing protocol is employed when a mobile node wants to send the same message or stream of data to a group of nodes that share a common interest. If there is a geographical area (location) associated with the nodes that will receive the message or stream of data, we use a geocast protocol. Thus, a geocast protocol is a special type of multicast protocol, such that nodes need their updated location information along the time to delivery a message. In a multicast communication, nodes may join or leave a multicast group as desired, whereas in a geocast communication, nodes can only join or leave the group by entering or leaving the de ned geographical region. In a MANET, a multicast communication can possibly bring bene ts to the nodes such as bandwidth and energy savings. However, the maintenance of a multicast route, often based on a routing tree or mesh, is a dif cult problem for mobile ad hoc multicasting routing protocols due to the dynamic nature of a MANET. In particular, the cost of keeping a routing tree connected for the purpose of multicast communication may be prohibited. In a multicast mesh, a message can be accepted from any router node, as opposed to a tree that only accepts packets routed by tree nodes. Thus, a multicast mesh is more suitable for a MANET because it supports a higher connectivity than a tree. The method used to build the routing infrastructure (tree or mesh) in a mobile ad hoc network distinguishes the different multicasting routing protocols. Some of the route-tree-based multicast protocols for MANETs are AMRoute (Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol) [25], DDM (Differential Destination Multicast) [26], and MAODV (Multicast Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector routing) [27]. AMRoute uses an overlay approach based on bidirectional unicast tunnels
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