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Thus, it is a static CDS-based algorithm. Only nodes marked as Broadcast Relay Gateway (BRG) nodes perform a broadcast. The node selection algorithm of AHBP is as follows: 1. Locate all two-hop nodes that can only be reached by a single one-hop node. Mark those one-hop nodes as BRG members. 2. Calculate the set of nodes that will be covered by the BRG nodes. 3. For all remaining one-hop neighbors, nd the neighbor that will cover the most uncovered two-hop neighbors, and mark it as a BRG node. 4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until all two-hop neighbors are covered. Within a NWB packet, the set of BRG neighbors is kept in the packet header. As a result, upstream neighbors calculate which downstream neighbors will rebroadcast the packet, making this a static CDS-based approach. Static CDS algorithms can suffer greatly if a node with forwarding responsibilities does not receive a packet. In such a situation, the propagation of the NWB is halted, and the NWB is often worthless. When a BRG node receives a broadcast, it uses its current two-hop neighbor information to calculate which one-hop neighbors received the transmission. These neighbors are then removed from the neighbor set used in the BRG selection algorithm described above. Since AHBP is CDS based, its overhead is signi cantly smaller than oodingbased algorithms. However, since it is topology-sensitive, it is susceptible to mobility. Furthermore, since it is static, its robustness is low. 3.4.3 Scalable Broadcast Algorithm (SBA) The Scalable Broadcast Algorithm (SBA) [24] is essentially a dynamic version of AHBP where nodes locally determine if all their two-hop neighbors have been covered based on overhead broadcasts. The two-hop neighbor information is obtained via HELLO packets. If node A sends a packet and it is received at node B, node B calculates if it has neighbors that are not covered by node B. If there are uncovered neighbors, it will retransmit the packet. The algorithm is described in more detail using pseudo-code.
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Let T1 be the SBA Timer Let L be the list of nodes that sent a particular broadcast Let Nx be the neighbor list for node X Let U be the list of uncovered nodes When a source sends a packet, it is always broadcast. When a node A receives a broadcast from node S:
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If ({Na} > {Ns}) Then If T1<P> Then // If a timer exists for this packet T1<P>.add(P.source); // Add the originator of this broadcast Else T1 := new Timer(P, {Na}-{Ns}); T1.start(); End If; End If;
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T1.expire() { If ({U} > {N{L}}) Then Rebroadcast(P); End If; } Dynamic CDS algorithms adapt to losses far better than their static CDS counterparts. This resilience comes at a cost of higher forwarding costs than the static CDS approaches, but is more resilient to poor network conditions.
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3.4.4 Double-Covered Broadcast (DCB) DCB [26] is a static topology-sensitive CDS-based algorithm with xed built in redundancy. Speci cally, the CDS is built such that it provides double-coverage for every node. The intuition is that even if a single transmission is not received, the other is likely to enable recovery from this loss. Neighbor information is tracked via HELLO packets. A node wishing to send a NWB will follow the following algorithm: 1. Select a subset of one-hop neighbors that cover all two-hop nodes. Each of these neighbors must be covered by at least two transmissions, one from the sending node and one from the one-hop neighbor set. The nodes selected serve as forwarding nodes. 2. Each forwarding node follows the previous step and broadcasts the packet. 3. The transmission of the forwarding nodes serves as an acknowledgment for the upstream sending nodes. If a sender does not detect rebroadcasts from all forwarding nodes, it recalculates the forwarding node set and repeats the process. While this algorithm has built in redundancy, this redundancy is xed: It may be insuf cient in some situations (causing poor reliability), or unneeded in other situations, causing unnecessary addition retransmissions. Furthermore, when recalculating the
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