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some extensions [35, 70, 71]. Such mobility models cannot produce complex vehicle maneuvers such as car-following, accelerating, decelerating, or passing, nor can they produce global phenomena such as traf c jams. For this reason, many studies of VANETs rely on vehicular mobility models or traf c simulators to generate vehicle movement traces. Traf c simulation models can be classi ed as either microscopic, mesoscopic, or macroscopic. Microscopic models are models that continuously or discretely describe the state of individual vehicles, which may include speed and locations and their interactions. Macroscopic models ignore the detailed description of each vehicle and provide an aggregate view of traf c ow information such as speed, ow, and density. Mesoscopic models are models that have aspects of both macroscopic and microscopic models [72]. Models of VANET simulations can be classi ed into two categories. In the twostage model of Figure 14.6a, a vehicle traf c simulator (VTS) generates vehicle movement traces in the form of vehicle locations updated at regular time intervals. These movement traces are fed in the second stage to a wireless network simulator (WNS) to carry out the simulation of communication protocols independently (e.g., 3, 73, 74). This approach takes advantage of many existing traf c simulators that were designed originally for the purpose of studying vehicle traf c in transportation networks and have the ability to generate realistic vehicle movements. Examples of the simulators used in this category include CORSIM [3, 62, 73, 74], FARSI [19], SHIFT [45], and Videlio [2]. Moreover, traf c simulators based on CA models are used for FleetNet simulations [54, 75]. Many other simulators that were developed in support of ITS applications are surveyed in reference 76.
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Figure 14.6. VANET Simulation Models: (a) 2-stage model and (b) integrated model.
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The second category of VANET simulations integrates the mobility and the communication components. The model shown in Figure 14.6b provides a feedback path from the WNS to the VTS components in the simulator in order to allow the simulation of vehicles reaction to communication messages. The model is needed to study some of the applications discussed in Section 14.7, in which vehicles are expected to react to messages generated by information, safety, or cooperative driving applications by, say, changing speed or choosing an alternative route. The simulators that are reviewed here are still in the early stages of development and may lack the feedback loop between the WNS and VTS components, but they were developed speci cally to support VANET research. Among the recently proposed simulators is GrooveSim [71]. In simulations using GrooveSim, vehicles can travel on real city street maps using one of four mobility models. The communication components of the simulator include routing and transport protocols. GrooveSim, however, does not support the car-following model or multilane traf c. Dense traf c can only be created by manipulating the input parameters of one of the mobility models, and not by interactions between the vehicles. Moreover, the simulator does not account for effects buildings and other obstacles have on IVC. The simulator described in reference 77 also uses real street maps, but vehicles move according to the STRAW model. STRAW combines a car-following model, which sets the vehicle speed in relation to the speed of the preceding vehicle, with additional rules to deal with intersections and traf c controls (stop sign and traf c lights). The simulator does not support lane-change and it does not include buildings and obstacles. To simulate vehicle interactions at intersections, Dogan et al. [78] developed an IVC simulator that consists of VTS and WNS components. In order to evaluate an intersection collision warning system, the VTS supports vehicles of different sizes (cars, buses, trucks, and motorcycles) and various speed capabilities. The vehicle dynamics are similar to a car-following model. The WNS supports IEEE 802.11x [4] and DOLPHIN [79] as MAC protocols. 14.8.3 RoadSim We developed a traf c microsimulator, RoadSim [22, 80], to generate vehicle movement on highways. RoadSim implements the NaSch model [21], which generates complex vehicles movement patterns by specifying a few simple rules. The rules used in the NaSch model create behavior similar to car-following models with a constant headway. As a result, the speed density and ow-density relationships are described by equations (14.9) and (14.10), respectively. In RoadSim, more rules are added for additional components such as intersections, traf c controls, and multiple lanes. Vehicle maneuvers associated with these components cannot be created easily with car-following models. Moreover, it is possible, using RoadSim, to create any grid of intersections and roads (with multiple lanes and two directions) in order to study VANETs in urban environments. RoadSim includes several extensions to support VANET research. Among these extensions are the
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