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Figure 2.11. The coordinate systems of two nodes u, v and a node w that is a neighbor to both.
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results on this scheme the reader is advised to consult Capkun et al. [19]. In addition, Barbeau et al. [20] provides additional algorithms for improving localization in a sensor network. 2.5 PROTOCOLS AND APPLICATIONS Practical networks relying on beacons for addressing and routing are based either on the emerging ZigBee protocol or on proprietary protocols. In what follows, the ZigBee protocol is introduced, along with ZigBee routing and data broadcasting. Furthermore, we give a brief introduction of an elementary wireless architecture/protocol called MicrelNet, which is offered from Micrel [21]. Finally, several applications are discussed in Subsection 2.5.3. 2.5.1 ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 The ZigBee wireless protocol architecture is targeted to low-data-rate, low-powerconsumption, low-cost wireless personal networks (WPAN). The physical layer and link layer/access control was introduced in 2001 by IEEE (and is known as the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol). ZigBee [22] and IEEE eventually joined forces and a complete protocol developed, known as ZigBee. The ZigBee protocol stack is shown in Figure 2.13. The physical layer of ZigBee speci es three possible bands of operation: (a) 868- to 868.6-MHz ISM band with one channel of 20 Kb/s, (b) 902- to 928-MHz ISM band with 10 channels, each one
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Application OEM Framework and Objects Security Service IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee Device Object (ZDO) ZDO ZigBee Network Layet MAC Layer PHY Layer Management
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Figure 2.13. ZigBee protocol stack.
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ZigBee Coordinator ZigBee Router ZigBee End Device Mesh Link Star Link
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Figure 2.14. A ZigBee network.
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with a rate of 40 Kb/s, and (c) 2.4- to 2.4835-GHz ISM band with 16 channels, each one at a rate of 250 Kb/s. ZigBee speci es two types of device that can be network nodes: full-function device (FFD) and reduced-function device (RFD). Furthermore, two types for access medium are speci ed. The rst one is a beacon mode in which intermittent communication based on polling happens between a beacon node and nonbeacon nodes. In this case there are no packet collisions. An FFD can function as a PAN coordinator or a router. The second method for medium access is random access based on Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA-CA). An RFD is an end device that can communicate with a coordinator or router; however, it cannot forward traf c from other nodes. The end devices participate in the network formation by linking to the coordinator/routers in star-like link connections. Multihop connections can be established by relaying data from router to router using mesh-link connections. A representative ZigBee topology is shown in Figure 2.14. The network layer of the ZigBee protocol implements a hierarchical routing strategy with table-driven optimizations applied where possible. The routing layer employs the Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) (see Parkins et al. [23] and Parkins and Belding-Royer [24]) and Motorola s Cluster-Tree algorithms WPANS [25]. The AODV algorithm will not be explained in detail since it falls outside the scope of this chapter.
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The Cluster Tree Algorithm. This algorithm uses link-state packets to form either a single cluster network or a larger cluster tree network. Nodes select a cluster head (CH) and form a cluster in a self-organized manner. Self-developed clusters connect to each other using a designated device. We distinguish two cases: single-cluster and multiple-cluster networks.
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Single-Cluster Network. On power up, a node scans the channels to search for HELLO messages from other nodes. If a HELLO message is not received within a time period, then the node assumes the role of a CH and broadcasts a HELLO message. If a reply is not received, the node goes back into the silent state and repeats the process. A CH can also be precon gured based on special functionality, computing ability, or location information. If a node receives a HELLO message from CH, then it replies with a CONNECTION REQUEST message to the CH. The CH replies with a CONNECTIONS RESPONSE that includes an address that the CH assigns to the node. The node nally replies with an ACK to the CH and completes its registration within the cluster. A CH assumes a node id, which (for a single cluster) is ID0 to indicate that the node is a cluster head. The ID0 is also included as the most signi cant part of the addresses assigned to any other node in the cluster by the cluster head. Nodes that cannot directly contact the CH may reach it via other nodes already in contact following an analogous procedure. Further details can be found in WPANS [25]. Multiple-Cluster Network. In the case of a multiple-cluster network, a designator device (DD) is introduced. This device is responsible for assigning a unique cluster ID to each cluster head. The cluster ID combined with the node ID that each CH assigns to a node within a cluster will form an address and will be used for routing packets. The DD may also calculate the shortest route from a cluster to the DD and forward this information to all the nodes within the network. The DD assigns cluster IDs (CID) using nodes that are found at the intersections of clusters. These nodes may happen to be ordinary nodes or cluster-head nodes. The details of the messages exchanged in order to form a multiple-cluster network can be found in WPANS [25]. An example of a multiple-cluster network is shown in Figure 2.15. Routing inside a cluster is straightforward. Routing between clusters can be accomplished using the border nodes (nodes that are common within clusters), which can relay packets. Routing can be done in a hierarchical manner by appropriately
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