1: SOLAR INSOLATION CONVERSION FOR SIMULATION OF PV SYSTEMS in .NET

Maker QR in .NET 1: SOLAR INSOLATION CONVERSION FOR SIMULATION OF PV SYSTEMS
APPENDIX 1: SOLAR INSOLATION CONVERSION FOR SIMULATION OF PV SYSTEMS
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PTotal in watts
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Relay Radio100%
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Relay Radio 75% Relay Radio 50% Relay Radio 25% Relay Radio 0%
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0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
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(calls/sec)
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Figure 12.14. PTotal versus .
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12.5 CONCLUSIONS In this chapter we have discussed the design of solar-powered WLAN mesh networks. We rst considered the basic solar-powered node components needed for energy sustainable operation. In order to provide this sustainability, the solar panel and battery have to be carefully provisioned, taking into account the solar insolation history of the node s intended location. Sizing of these components is important since they are often a signi cant fraction of the node cost. In order to properly provision a node, its target power consumption must be known in advance, which may be dif cult if the node s power consumption is traf c-dependent. Solar-powered node cost is often a strong function of the solar panel and battery resources needed by the node. Protocol power saving for mesh APs, however, is not de ned under any existing IEEE standard. In this chapter we have shown the value that such power saving would provide. Movable boundary mechanisms are available which would allow a node to achieve power saving and still offer good best-effort traf c performance. Similarly, mesh AP power saving can be achieved for connection-oriented traf c using minor modi cations to the IEEE 802.11 standard. The advantages of this were clearly shown in our results. 12.6 APPENDIX 1: SOLAR INSOLATION CONVERSION FOR SIMULATION OF PV SYSTEMS This appendix provides an overview of how solar radiation data can be modeled and converted in order to simulate a photovoltaic (PV) system. Current commercial simulators take as an input the current geographic location and the required load pro le, and they then perform discrete event simulations in order to predict different
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POWER SAVING IN SOLAR-POWERED WLAN MESH NETWORKS
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outage events and battery and PV sizing necessary to provide sustainable operation of the system. The simulator must take into account the inef ciencies caused by losses in the charge controller and other components in the system including the battery temperature ef ciency; for most battery families, as the ambient temperature decreases, the charge carriers within the battery become more sluggish and the battery capacity decreases signi cantly. Publicly available meteorological data are only available for horizontal and fully tracking (direct normal) components and cannot be used directly for a xed planar solar panel. For this reason it is necessary to develop a conversion methodology to compute the energy incident on the panel using the available datasets. The total radiation received by a panel consists of three terms: the direct component, Ic , which is the radiation coming directly from the sun; the diffuse component, Dc (due mainly to sky diffraction), which consists of non-direct-radiation components; nally the ground-re ected component, Rc , which is often neglected. Calculation of the direct component can be performed using well-known trigonometric calculations and is straightforward. On the other hand, the calculation of the diffuse component estimation requires a more complex conversion model, and several have appeared in the literature. Before examining the diffuse component estimation methodologies, let us rst discuss the data available in North American records [4, 5]. Generally, ve different solar radiation data elds are available. They are brie y discussed below.
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Extraterrestrial Horizontal Radiation. This is the amount of solar radiation received on a horizontal surface at the top of the atmosphere. It is also known as topof-atmosphere (TOA) irradiance and is the amount of global horizontal radiation that a location on earth would receive if there were no atmosphere. This number is used as the reference amount against which actual solar energy measurements are compared.
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Extraterrestrial Direct Normal Radiation. This reading is the level of solar radiation received on a surface normal to the sun at the top of the atmosphere. The previous two elds are deterministic and can be calculated using the sun earth distance and position equations. The rest of the elds are random processes. In general, due to the motion of the earth around the sun and its rotation, solar insolation experiences cyclic changes over a year, and these variations are deterministic to a large extent. However, complex weather processes such as humidity, temperature, air pressure, and cloud type affect the received insolation. The following data is typically included.
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Global Horizontal Radiation. This is the total amount of direct and diffuse solar radiation received on a horizontal surface at ground level where the measurements are taken.
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