ACK-THINNING TECHNIQUES FOR TCP IN MANETS in VS .NET

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Figure 10.10. The functionality of Split TCP over an 11-hop string topology featuring an inter-proxy distance of 4.
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the proxies, which places extra computational demands on these forwarding nodes. This latter requirement may place a strain on the (already limited) power reserves of mobile devices. Disabling RTS/CTS for Short Segments. In the 802.11 protocol, the exchange of unicast messages is conducted at the link layer, rst with an RTS/CTS handshake and then with a DATA-ACK exchange [4]. The Request to Send/Clear to Send (RTS/CTS) exchange is a bilateral point-to-point transmission between successive nodes along a path to reserve the space around the nodes, avoiding the hidden and exposed terminal effects [4]. The DATA/ACK exchange at the link layer is an attempt to ensure reliable delivery of DATA on a point-to-point basis, although there is a limit to such efforts before the link layer gives up and drops the frame 2 ; speci cally up to four retries for DATA and seven times for RTS frames are attempted.3 Figure 10.11 illustrates the principles of the RTS/CTS exchange. In Figure 10.11a the source and destination nodes communicate by a simple DATA/ACK exchange, as denoted by instances 1 and 2. The source node senses the channel to determine if there are ongoing transmissions, in which case it defers its own until such time as there are no more transmissions occurring. Assuming similar transceivers and signal propagation conditions, the source can only be certain that there are no transmissions within its sensing range (the reserved area denoted by the shaded section in Figure 10.11a). However, nodes transmitting within the nonreserved area may interfere with the source s signal because they have no means of detecting the source s transmission and thus will not defer in turn. The RTS/CTS exchange solves this issue as shown in Figure 10.11b. The usual DATA/ACK transmissions in instances 3 and 4, respectively, are preceded by an RTS
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term frame is employed here when discussing issues related to Link/MAC layer messages as per IEEE practice [4]. number of retries for segment retransmission are de ned by the dot11ShortRetryLimit and dot11LongRetryLimit variables in the IEEE 802.11 speci cation.
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Figure 10.11. Illustrating communications with the plain and RTS/CTS transmissions scheme. (a) Plain DATA/ACK exchange does not reserve the whole space around the transmitter and receiver. (b) RTS/CTS followed by a DATA/ACK exchange reserves more space around the communicating nodes.
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probe from the source which is accompanied by a CTS response from the destination. The RTS frame informs nodes within the source s transmission range that a DATA frame will follow as a transmission, while the CTS response informs nodes within the destination s transmission radius that they should withhold transmission so as not to interfere with the reception of the DATA frame from the source. The RTS and CTS frames are very small in size so as to reduce the overhead of this preamble to the real transmission. If a CTS response is not forthcoming from the destination, the source can then surmise that the destination did not receive its RTS because another transmission near the destination has interfered with its signal. Hence, the source defers its transmission to a later time. Details of this exchange in the context of the 802.11 protocol may be found in reference 4. However, previous research has revealed that enabling the RTS/CTS exchange may in fact reduce throughput and lead to unfairness if the source and destination nodes are suf ciently far apart [50]. The identifying cause for this effect is the discrepancy between a transceiver s transmission and interference ranges. Readers interested in more details should consult references 50 and 51. It should also be observed that eliminating the RTS/CTS exchange altogether is not an optimal solution because it allows for hidden and exposed terminal effects to occur, thus leading to frequent frame collisions [4].
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