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Figure 8.8. Local model and user pro le example.
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walking along a street or driving down the highway. Once users describe their motion pattern, the intermediate nodes have a more accurate estimation of which nodes move toward the destination with higher probability. Model-Based Routing (MBR) [30] uses world models of the mobile nodes for a better selection of relaying nodes and the determination of a receiver location without ooding the network. World models contain location information (e.g., road maps or building charts) and user pro les indicating the motion pattern of users, Figure 8.8 (originally shown in reference 30). The key idea of the approach is to take into account that mobile devices typically do not follow the random walk motion pattern but are carried by human beings. Once humans describe their motion pattern or some sort of monitoring deduces it, MBR can rely on this information in the form of user pro les to choose a relay that moves toward the target with higher probability. With the information of the receiver location, each intermediate node can determine the next relaying node based on the user pro le. Each node offers an interface that emits the probability that the user will move toward a given location. Hence the routing algorithm can choose fewer relays if a small number of relays have been found that will move near or to the location with high probability. However, only a sketch of the algorithm is described in reference 30 (no detail is given). Obtaining the user pro le is an open research question. Their work relies on the known receiver location that is provided by a central location service, an unrealistic assumption. A model of nodes moving along on a highway is described in reference 31. With ad hoc networks deployed on moving vehicles, network partitions due to limited radio range become inevitable when traf c density is low, such as at night, or when few vehicles carry a wireless device. A key question to ask is whether it is possible to deliver messages in spite of partitions, by taking the advantage that predictable node movement creates opportunities to relay messages in a store-and-forward fashion. Chen et al. [31] test the hypothesis that the motion of vehicles on a highway can contribute to successful message delivery, provided that messages can be relayed and stored temporarily at moving nodes while waiting for opportunities to be forwarded
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further. Messages are propagated greedily each time step, by hopping to the neighbor closest to the destination. Two kinds of transmission scheme are used. One is pessimistic forwarding and one is optimistic forwarding, which are distinguished by how long the messages are permitted to stay in intermediate nodes. In pessimistic forwarding, a message is dropped whenever no next hop exists for its destination. This is how forwarding works in most ad hoc network implementations. In optimistic forwarding, messages without next hops may remain on intermediate nodes for some time, hoping that physical movement of network nodes eventually creates a forwarding opportunity. Using vehicle movement traces from a traf c micro-simulator, the authors measure average message delivery time and nd that it is shorter than when the messages are not relayed. 8.3.4 Node Movement Control-Based Approaches The approaches discussed in the previous sections let the mobile host wait passively for the network to reconnect. This may lead to unacceptable transmission delays for some application. Some works, therefore, have proposed approaches that try to limit these delays by exploiting and controlling node mobility. As illustrated in Figure 8.9, the trajectories of some nodes (or special nodes) can be controlled so that overall system performance metrics, such as delay, can be improved. Li and Rus [32] explore the possibility of changing the host trajectories in order to facilitate communication in ad hoc networks. In contrast to letting the mobile host wait passively for reconnection, the mobile hosts actively modify their trajectories to minimize transmission delay of messages. Given an ad hoc network of mobile computers where the trajectory of each node is known, they develop an algorithm for computing a trajectory for sending a message from host A to host B by asking intermediate hosts to change their trajectories in order to complete a routing path between hosts A and B. The communication protocol proposed is an applicationlayer protocol (rather than a network-layer protocol). When the network cannot route
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