ROUTING WITH UNKNOWN POSITIONS in .NET framework

Creating QR Code in .NET framework ROUTING WITH UNKNOWN POSITIONS
ROUTING WITH UNKNOWN POSITIONS
Scanning QR-Code In .NET
Using Barcode Control SDK for VS .NET Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in VS .NET applications.
Let the distance function (p, d) measure the goodness of node p as a next hop to d. The above intuition is encapsulated into the distance function using the sums + (p, d) = k
Printing QR Code ISO/IEC18004 In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create QR-Code image in VS .NET applications.
i Ck (d)
QR Code JIS X 0510 Decoder In .NET
Using Barcode recognizer for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
max(pi di , 0) max(di pi , 0)
Barcode Printer In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in .NET applications.
i Ck (d)
Scanning Bar Code In .NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
(8.4) (8.5)
QR Code ISO/IEC18004 Creator In Visual C#
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Denso QR Bar Code image in VS .NET applications.
(p, d) = k
QR-Code Generation In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for ASP.NET Control to generate, create QR Code image in ASP.NET applications.
where Ck (d) is the set of k beacons closest to d. The metric is a sum of differences derived from Eqs. (8.4) and (8.5). + is the sum of the differences of beacons closer k to the destination than the node p, while is the sum of the differences of beacons k further away. BVR routes greedily as follows. The next hop is chosen to be the node that minimizes + ; any tie that may occur is broken by minimizing . Note that the k beacons k k may number fewer than the total number of beacons in the system and that the smallest difference min encountered during a traversal must be stored in the message header for reference.
Create QR Code In VB.NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET framework Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in .NET framework applications.
ALGORITHM 4. Overview of Beacon Vector Routing (BVR) 1. (Greedy) Where possible, forward to the neighbor that minimizes Eq. (8.4), breaking ties using Eq. (8.5). 2. (Recovery) If no such neighbor exists, record the current distance in the packet as min and forward to the beacon closest to the destination. 3. (Recovery) If message has reached a beacon without reverting back to greedy mode, broadcast with a time-to-live equal to hop distance from the destination node.
Code 128C Creator In VS .NET
Using Barcode generator for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set C image in VS .NET applications.
A global view of the main BVR algorithm is summarized in Algorithm 4. As is the case with other greedy schemes, there are occasions where forwarding may terminate prematurely, failing to nd a neighbor that improves on min . BVR is able to guarantee delivery using a two-tier recovery mode. First, if a node has no neighbor closer to the destination than itself, it will forward the message to the beacon closest to the destination. The idea is that if a sensor node is unable to nd the destination, then it should send the message in the direction of a node that can. Interim nodes that receives the message will forward to the destination as if recovery never occurred, if possible. Second, if a beacon is unable to further minimize min , then it initiates a scope ooding to nd the destination. (The scope of the ood is known since the destination coordinates record the hop-distance from each beacon.) While this recovery mechanism is an expensive means of guaranteeing delivery, it is found to occur infrequently in simulations.
GS1 - 12 Generator In .NET
Using Barcode maker for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create UCC - 12 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
POSITION-BASED ROUTING FOR SENSOR NETWORKS: APPROACHES AND OBSTACLES
Bar Code Encoder In .NET
Using Barcode printer for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Similar ideas have been proposed in references 45 and 46. FT-BVR in reference 46, for example, extends BVR using fault-tolerant techniques to improve on a variety of performance metrics. Logical Coordinate Routing (LCR), in reference 45, is similar to BVR in its coordinate construction and routing mechanisms. Where it differs is in recovery. Where BVR ultimately resorts to a scoped broadcast, LCR backtracks along the path-thus-far until an alternate path is found or the message returns to the originating node where delivery is deemed to have failed. Clearly, LCR avoids the expense of a broadcast in exchange for additional state (either in the message or stored at interim nodes). 8.4.3 Drawbacks and Challenges with Unknown Coordinates Generally speaking, mechanisms that construct and route over virtual coordinate systems manage to overcome many of the challenges that face routing in physical coordinate systems. To wit, virtual coordinate routing schemes make no assumptions pertaining to the unit disk graph, an assumption that is shown to be violated in practice [36, 37, 49], nor do they require GPS-like services that may be unavailable. This bene t does come at some expense, however. The rst limitation is related to the infrastructure necessary for correct operation. Constructs that create coordinate systems that re ect connectivity require the use of beacons. (Beacons are de ned as nodes that have knowledge of their location via global positioning systems that have some preprogramming or that are placed strategically.) Each of these incurs a cost increase on the manufacturing and deployment process that is intended to otherwise be cheap. In addition, many environments wellserved by sensor-network applications can be volatile. In such environments a small number of beacons may be lost, destroyed, or otherwise disabled. The use of beacons may be restrictively expensive and complicated when deployed broadly, yet present fault-tolerance and failure issues when deployed narrowly. If beacons are required, does it suf ce to select them randomly If not, what determines the goodness of a beacon Despite these challenges, beaconing may be an effective solution to a dif cult problem. In addition, virtual coordinate and routing methods also incur additional complexity in communication, and sometimes computation. Coordinates in the network cannot be learned unless information is broadcast so that all nodes share similar knowledge. Energy consumption is a greater concern since transmission is known to be a highenergy operation, and broadcasts increase the chance of collision (though there are proposals to intelligently broadcast such as in reference 50. Often the determination of coordinates requires additional computation. Finally, we address the accuracy of virtual coordinates. Coordinates that record hop counts are likely to be duplicated throughout the network, and so additional care must be taken to deliver messages to the intended recipient. Coordinate systems that measure physical distances re ect network connectivity well, but are subject to limits in resolution. In reference 51, work on Nagpal s algorithm, a set of algorithms to construct and improve coordinates based on distances from three distinct bea cons, reveals the smallest resolution to be 4n r, where n is the average neighborhood
ISSN Encoder In .NET Framework
Using Barcode drawer for .NET Control to generate, create ISSN - 10 image in .NET framework applications.
TABLE 8.1. Summary of Various Protocol Attributes MFR, GRA, NFP, Greedy DFS-QoS Compass Mapping Yes NA No No Yesb Extended Medium Yes Yes No Yes Yesa No No No Local Low Yes No No No NA No No NA Extended High NA Yes No No Yesa Yes No Yesb Global Medium Yes No No Planar Subgraph Methods CLDP GDSTR Yes Yes No No No Local NA No Yes No No NA No No No Local Medium Yes Yes No
ANSI/AIM Code 39 Generation In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode maker for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 39 Extended image in ASP.NET applications.
Create Bar Code In Java
Using Barcode creator for Java Control to generate, create bar code image in Java applications.
Data Matrix Generation In C#
Using Barcode drawer for .NET framework Control to generate, create Data Matrix ECC200 image in VS .NET applications.
Recognize Data Matrix 2d Barcode In .NET Framework
Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
EAN 128 Generator In C#
Using Barcode generation for VS .NET Control to generate, create UCC.EAN - 128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.