A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN SENSOR NETWORKS in .NET

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A TAXONOMY OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN SENSOR NETWORKS
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Figure 6.4. M-MMPR: Source-to-destination meshed multipath [28].
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entering to sleep mode or has just woken up. In this case, the nodes status is locally broadcast based on which of the neighborhood tables of nearby nodes are updated. r Route Discovery: Each node attempts to form a meshed multipath based on the neighborhood database and location information of the controller node. So far, the intermediate node is allowed to accept multiple discovery packets. During source-to-destination route discovery process, at most two copies of a discovery packet are accepted by an intermediate node, and the rst arrived packet is forwarded to maximum two downstream neighbors nodes to ensure the reduction of the receiver complexity and power consumption of a node as can be seen from Figure 6.4. A maximum two forwarding node is chosen since this allows an alternate route with minimum possible extra control overhead. The route packet has the following elds: source ID, source location, intermediate node ID, next node ID1, next node ID2, destination ID, destination location, and TTL, where the IDs of forwarding nodes (next node IDi, i = 1, 2), intermediate node ID, and TTL values are updated at each intermediate stage. Each intermediate node maintains the following information in its routing database: previous node IDi, previous node IDn, next node ID1, next node ID2. Since several nodes are targeting the same destination, an intermediate node can have more than two previous node entries in its routing table although there will be no more than two next nodes as can be seen from Figure 6.5. The list of previous node is bounded since the number of local
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Figure 6.5. M-MPR. Meshed topology formed by many-sources-to-a-destination routes [28].
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SENSOR NETWORKS ROUTING PROTOCOLS
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neighbors are nite and no entry is created in the routing table for discovery packets coming from an upstream neighbor which is already listed in the list. If an intermediate node that has already forwarded a discovery packet receives another discovery packet, it updates the previous node list in its routing table and drops the packet. Entry in the routing table at each node is maintained as a soft state that is deleted after a timeout unless a reply is received from a controller node. Since most sensor applications are data-centric, delay differences (jitter) between packet arrivals is not a big concern. No other resource reservation apart from storing and maintaining upstream and downstream nodes information is made during this phase; therefore, the route discovery phase can be considered as a topology construction process. r Route Reply: Route reply message identi es the nodes comprised the meshed path. The controller node, upon receiving the discovery packets from a single source, selects the rst two and sends a route reply following the original links by the route discovery packets in reverse direction with the following elds: source ID, source location, intermediate node ID, previous node ID1, previous node ID2. Each intermediate node changes the states of its corresponding entries from soft to permanent for the duration of its active participation, updates the elds of the reply packet other than the source information, and forwards the reply packet to its upstream node. When forwarding the route reply message, the node does not require the knowledge of source information. In case of the discovery packets arriving to controller node from several sensor nodes, multicast reply is used. If an intermediate node is out of service or goes to sleep mode, the upstream nodes select necessary neighbors to sustain connectivity. Intermittent link breakage will not trigger recon guration of meshed multipath, instead it is handled using selective forwarding. In the constructed meshed topology, the number of downstream links is no more than two, whereas the number of upstream nodes can be more. As can be observed from Figure 6.5, node n has three upstream nodes (a, b, and c) and two downstream nodes (x and y).
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After the meshed multipath is constructed, the information packet is forwarded from the source to the destination using either the packet replication (PR) or selective forwarding (SF) variants. The methods are explained below in a nutshell. r In PR, a source packet is copied from along all possible paths to its destination. To reduce power consumption due to transmission of multiple copies of the same packet, there is a provision of discarding the packets if a node receives more than one correct copy of the packet from one of the upstream nodes to be forwarded to the downstream node.
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