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Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil; and FUCAPI Analysis, Research, and Technology Innovation Center, Brazil
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ANTONIO A. F. LOUREIRO
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Department of Computer Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
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18.1 INTRODUCTION In 1, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) [1 8] are de ned has a network composed of a large number of sensor nodes that cooperate among themselves to monitor an area of interest. This type of network has become popular due to its wide applicability, including many different areas such as the environmental, medical, industrial, and military elds. For military applications, WSNs show a number of desirable characteristics such as (a) being autonomous systems able to be deployed in remote possibly hostile environments and (b) their ability to perform tasks such as battle eld surveillance or enemy tracking as well as security monitoring of military facilities. However, one of the main challenges in these critical applications, as shown in 16, is the security issue. We need to avoid attacks on networks located in hostile environments
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Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, Edited by Azzedine Boukerche Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons Inc.
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SECURE LOCALIZATION SYSTEMS: PROTOCOLS AND TECHNIQUES
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as well as attacks to sensor networks that monitor the security of military facilities in order to guarantee the reliability of the provided data and requested tasks. As mentioned in 11, a WSN is able to monitor a number of physical properties such as temperature, humidity, pressure, ambient light, and movement. However, all these gathered data and, thus, the sensor nodes themselves need to be localized in space in order to identify the events location. This positioning task is the main goal of the localization systems [6, 8 18]. Since positioning data are used not only to locate events but also as base information for routing [19 22], density control, tracking, and a number of other protocols, the localization systems are considered as key parts of WSNs. By performing key essential functions, localization systems can be used as a security target that could compromise the whole functioning of a WSN, which could lead to incorrect military plans and decision-making, among other problems. Thus, these systems should be secured in order to protect the whole network and avoid the consequences of having hostile nodes and untrusted data traf c affecting the performance and function of the WSN. In this chapter, we show how current localization systems are vulnerable to these security attacks and how proposed techniques can be used to prevent or make these attacks dif cult to perform in WSNs. As we will see, for each proposed technique, a set of network resources (e.g., nodes energy, media access, processor, and memory consumption) are required in order to implement and maintain the provided security. While in most networks this is not a problem, in WSNs this issue becomes a little bit more complicated due to their resource limitations. In this case, as we show in this chapter, we need to decide on the required level of security, which is application-dependent, and how many resources can be spent in providing these levels of security. Depending on this cost bene t analysis, we can decide which solution or what security techniques will be used to secure the WSN. The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows. In the next section, we brie y present an overview and de nition of a secure localization system. Section 18.3 identi es the vulnerabilities to which localization systems are exposed, while in Section 18.4 we show some techniques used to eliminate these vulnerabilities. Finally, Section 18.5 presents our conclusions and future directions for secure localization systems.
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18.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT Before de ning secure localization systems, we will rst take a look at some general concepts and de nitions used in normal localization systems. From the viewpoint of localization systems, we have basically two types of nodes: regular nodes and beacons. Regular nodes, also known as unknown, free, or dumb nodes, refer to the nodes in the network that have no knowledge of their position and have no special hardware to acquire this information. The beacon nodes, also known as landmarks, anchors, or locators, are the nodes that do not need a localization system in order to estimate their physical positions; in fact, they form the base of these systems. Their position is obtained by manual placement or by external means such as GPS.
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