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The cluster leader checks the ID from the packet, checks if the ID in the packet matches the ID it holds, and veri es the authentication and integrity of the packet through MAC. The cluster key Kc is used for message decryption with in a cluster where a cluster leader needs to decrypt the message sent by a node and prepare that message to forward the next hop. This secure triple-key management scheme provides added resilience toward susceptible attacks on sensor networks by keeping in mind the resource-starved nature of sensor nodes.
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16.7 SECURE ROUTING Secure routing in sensor networks is challenging due to the unique characteristics sensor networks have compared to wired and wireless ad hoc networks. Traditional IP-based routing is not a viable solution due to a relatively large number of sensor nodes because the overhead of IP maintenance is very high. Following are the issues that need to be kept in mind while designing a secure routing protocol in sensor networks. 1. Sensor nodes are self-organizing due to the ad hoc deployment, and nodes are left unattended after the deployment. 2. In sensor networks, most of the time ow of data would be from nodes to cluster leader and base station. 3. Careful route management due to nodes limitations. 4. Frequent changes in network topology due to the dynamic nature of sensor networks. 5. Sensor networks are application-speci c and data-centric. 6. Secure location of sensor nodes because Global Posting Systems (GPS) are not suitable for sensor networks. There are very few routing protocols proposed to address the secure routing issues in sensor networks. In the following sections we present some of these solutions discussed by Saraogi [22]. 16.7.1 SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks SPINS is a suite of security building blocks proposed by Perig et al. [23]. It is optimized for resource constrained environments and wireless communication. SPINS has two secure building blocks: SNEP and TESLA (the micro version of TESLA). SNEP provides data con dentiality, two-party data authentication, and data freshness. TESLA provides authenticated broadcast for severely resource-constrained environments. All cryptographic primitives (i.e., encryption, message authentication code (MAC), hash, random number generator) are constructed out of a single block
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cipher for code reuse. This, along with the symmetric cryptographic primitives used, reduces the overhead on the resource constrained sensor network. In a broadcast medium such as a sensor network, data authentication through a symmetric mechanism cannot be applied because all the receivers know the key. TESLA constructs authenticated broadcast from symmetric primitives, but introduces asymmetry with delayed key disclosure and one-way function key chains. SNEP. SNEP uses encryption to achieve con dentiality and uses message authentication code (MAC) to achieve two-party authentication and data integrity. Apart from con dentiality, another important security property is semantic security, which ensures that an eavesdropper has no information about the plaintext, even if it sees multiple encryptions of the same plaintext [24]. The basic technique to achieve this is randomization: Before encrypting the message with a chaining encryption function (i.e., DESCBC), the sender precedes the message with a random bit string (also called the initialization vector). This prevents the attacker from inferring the plaintext of encrypted messages if it knows plaintext ciphertext pairs encrypted with the same key. To avoid adding the additional transmission overhead of these extra bits, SNEP uses a shared counter between the sender and the receiver for the block cipher in counter mode (CTR). The communicating parties share the counter and increment it after each block. SNEP offers the following unique features: Semantic Security. Since the counter value is incremented after each message, the same message is encrypted differently each time. The counter value is long enough that it never repeats within the lifetime of the node. Data Authentication. If the MAC veri es correctly, a receiver can be assured that the message originated from the claimed sender. Replay Protection. The counter value in the MAC prevents replaying old messages. Note that if the counter were not present in the MAC, an adversary could easily replay messages. Data Freshness. If the message veri ed correctly, a receiver knows that the message must have been sent after the previous message it received correctly (that had a lower counter value). This enforces a message ordering and yields weak freshness. Low Communication Overhead. The counter state is kept at each end point and does not need to be sent in each message. TESLA. Most of the proposals for authenticated broadcast are impractical for sensor networks, because they rely on asymmetric digital signatures for the authentication. The TESLA protocol provides ef cient authenticated broadcast [25, 26];
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