SECURITY IN SENSOR NETWORKS in Visual Studio .NET

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SECURITY IN SENSOR NETWORKS
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and (2) data-centric protocols [8] in which packets contain attributes that specify the type of data being provided. Law and Havinga [7] have described Karlof and Wagner [5] routing attacks in sensor networks as below: 1. Packets are dropped completely, or selectively. 2. The network is ooded with global broadcasts. 3. Some sensor nodes in the network are misguided into believing that nodes are either multiple hops away or do not exist at all in the neighbors. 4. A signi cant proportion of the traf c is tunneled from one place in the network to another distant place of the network depriving other parts of the network that under normal circumstances would have received the traf c themselves. 5. Sometimes traf c is lured to a particular node or a small group of nodes, depriving other parts of the network that normally would have received the traf c themselves. Security of routing protocols depends on the location of nodes and the encryption techniques. Data Link Layer. The data link layer does the error detection and correction, as well as encoding of data. The link layer is vulnerable to jamming and DoS attacks. TinySec [9] has introduced link layer encryption, which depends on a key management scheme. However, an attacker having better energy ef ciency can still wage an attack. Protocols like LMAC [10] have better anti-jamming properties, which are viable countermeasures at this layer. Physical Layer. The physical layer emphasizes the transmission media between sending and receiving nodes; the data rate, signal strength, and frequency types are also addressed in this layer. Ideally, the FHSS frequency hopping spread spectrum is used in sensor networks. Table 16.2 summarizes the attacks and countermeasures in a layering model in sensor networks.
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TABLE 16.2. Layering Approach in Sensor Network Attacks and Countermeasures Attack Types Application layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer Subversion and malicious nodes Wormholes, sinkholes, Sybil, routing loops Link layer jamming DoS attacks, Radio jamming, node capture Countermeasures Malicious node detection and isolation Key management, secure routing Link layer encryption Adaptive antennas, spread spectrum
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SECURITY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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16.5 CRYPTOGRAPHY IN SENSOR NETWORKS To achieve security in any communication model, it is important to encrypt messages among the sensor nodes on an agreed key management scheme. In traditional networks we use the complex key management schemes such as Public and Dif e Hellman [11] keying schemes. However, providing a secure key management scheme in sensor networks is dif cult due to ad hoc, dynamic topology and resource limitations. The general key distribution problem refers to the task of distributing secret keys between communicating parties to provide security properties such as secrecy and authentication. In sensor networks, key distribution is usually combined with initial communication establishment to bootstrap a secure communication infrastructure from a collection of deployed sensor nodes. To bootstrap the security in sensor networks, nodes must be able to establish a secure node-to-node communication such as the following: r Additional legitimate nodes deployed at a later time should be able to form secure connections with already-deployed nodes. r Unauthorized nodes should not be able to gain entry into the network, either through packet injection or masquerading as legitimate node. r The scheme must work without prior knowledge of which nodes will come into the communication range of each other after deployment. r The computational and storage requirement of the key management scheme must be low, and the scheme should be robust to DoS attacks from out-of-network source. Figure16.2 shows a keying process to establish secure communication between node A and node B. 16.5.1 Asymmetric Cryptography Asymmetric cryptography, also known as public key, is the most commonly used keying method in computing. However, the following three factors make public keying not feasible for sensor networks:
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