Security Issues and Countermeasures in Wireless Sensor Networks in Visual Studio .NET

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Security Issues and Countermeasures in Wireless Sensor Networks
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School of Information Technologies, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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16.1 INTRODUCTION Sensor networks pose unique security challenges because of their inherent limitations in communication and computing. The deployment nature of sensor networks makes them more vulnerable to various attacks. Sensor networks are deployed in applications where they have physical interactions with the environment, people, and other objects, making them more vulnerable to security threats. We envision that sensor networks would be deployed in mission critical applications such as battle eld, security of key land marks, building and bridges, measuring traf c ow, habitat monitoring, and farming. Inherent limitations of sensor networks can be categorized as node and network limitations. The privacy and security issues in sensor networks raise rich research questions. Dense deployment of sensor networks in an unattended environment makes sensor nodes vulnerable to potential attacks. Attackers can capture the sensor nodes and compromise the network to accept malicious nodes as legitimate nodes. Once within the network, attackers can wage a variety of attacks. We expect Moore s law to be applied to drive down the cost of sensor nodes instead of improving its resources and performance. Hardware and software improvements will address these issues to some extent, but complete secure sensor networks require deployment of countermeasures such as secure key management, secure routing, and lightweight encryption techniques. This chapter provides an overview of security issues known so far in sensor networks, along with the countermeasures against these issues followed by key management schemes and secure routing protocols. The key management and routing protocols
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Algorithms and Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks, Edited by Azzedine Boukerche Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons Inc.
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discussed in this chapter are the resilient solutions toward the attacks identi ed so far; however, research toward a complete secure sensor network is still in its infancy stages.
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16.2 LIMITATIONS IN SENSOR NETWORKS The following sections list the inherent limitations in sensor networks which make the design of security procedures more complicated. 16.2.1 Node Limitations A typical sensor node processor is of 4 8 MHz, having 4 Kbyte of RAM, 128 Kbyte ash and ideally 916 MHz of radio frequency. Heterogeneous nature of sensor nodes is an additional limitation that prevents one security solution. Due to the deployment nature, sensor nodes would be deployed in environments where they would be highly prone to physical vandalism. 16.2.2 Network Limitations Besides node limitations, sensor networks bring all the limitations of a mobile ad hoc network where they lack physical infrastructure, and they rely on insecure wireless media. 16.2.3 Physical Limitations Sensor networks deployment nature in public and hostile environments in many applications makes them highly vulnerable to capture and vandalism. Security sensor nodes with tamper-proof material increases the node cost.
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16.3 SENSOR NETWORKS AND MANETS Wireless sensor networks characteristics are common with Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). Both have limitations in terms of memory, power, and computational capabilities, and they rely on wireless communication via radio frequency (RF). Both include data collection and data aggregation to make it available for processing. In both networks, some nodes are statically deployed while most have a high level of mobility after deployment. However, sensor networks differ from MANETs in many areas: Sensor networks are very densely deployed (thousands as compared to hundreds in MANETs), they are dynamic [1, 2] (i.e., they allow addition or deletion of nodes after deployment to extend the network or to eliminate failed nodes without physical contact), and they are highly susceptible to capture and manipulation by an adversary.
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16.4 SECURITY IN SENSOR NETWORKS Security goals in sensor networks depend on the need to know what we are going to protect. We determine four security goals in sensor networks: con dentiality, integrity, authentication, and availability (CIAA). r Con dentiality. This is the ability to conceal a message from a passive attacker, where the message communicated on sensor networks remains con dential. r Integrity. This is the ability to con rm that the message has not been tampered with, altered, or changed while it was on the network. r Authentication. If the messages are from the node it claims to be from, we need to determine the reliability of the message s origin. r Availability. If a node has the ability to use the resources, the network is available for the messages to move on. 16.4.1 Security Classes P eeger [3] has identi ed four classes of security in computing systems. We integrate these four threat classes in sensor networks. In computing systems the major assets are hardware, software, and data. While in sensor networks, our goal is to protect the network itself, the nodes, and communication among the sensor nodes. There are four classes of threats which exploit the vulnerability of our security goals. Figure 16.1 shows these four threat classes: 1. In an interruption, a communication link in sensor networks becomes lost or unavailable. Examples of this sort of threat are node capture, message corruption, addition of malicious code, and so on. 2. An interception means a sensor net has been compromised by an adversary where the attacker gains unauthorized access to a sensor node or to data in it. An example of this type of attack is node capture. 3. Modi cation means that an unauthorized party not only accesses the data but tampers with it for example, modifying the data packets being transmitted, causing a denial of service attack; ooding the network with bogus data; and so on. 4. In fabrication, an adversary adds false data, making the whole network unreliable. 16.4.2 Security Threats in Sensor Networks Having built a foundation of security threats in computing, the following sections list the possible security threats in sensor networks identi ed by Undercoffer et al. [4]. Passive Information Gathering. An adversary with powerful resources collecting information from sensor networks if information is not encrypted.
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