ENERGY-EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS in .NET

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ENERGY-EFFICIENT ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
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(b) Because of the possibility to increase transmission range, VTRP performs better in cases of obstacles or faulty/sleeping sensors. Also, it bypasses certain critical sensors (like those close to the sink) that tend to be overused, thereby prolonging the network lifetime. To demonstrate the above properties of VTRP, we compare it to a typical xed-range protocol: the Local Target Protocol ( LTP). The ability of LTP to propagate information regarding the realization of a crucial event to the control center depends on the particle density of the network. The experiments conducted in reference 5 indicate that for low particle densities, LTP fails to propagate the messages to the control center (while for high particle densities the failure rate drops very fast to zero; that is, the messages are almost always reported correctly). The new protocol that we propose in this chapter successfully overcomes this problem by increasing the transmission range of the particles that fail to locate an active neighboring particle toward the sink. In fact, the experiments conducted in this chapter (see Section 15.6.7) demonstrate the superiority of VTRP over LTP even for sensor networks with very low particle densities. Further note that this is the rst time that the LTP protocol is evaluated under the setting of multiple events. Our ndings indicate that LTP has a fundamental design aw in this case, because the success of the propagation process heavily depends on the lifetime of the particles that are located around the control center. As soon as these particles exhaust their power supplies, the whole network becomes inoperable. The new protocol that we present here successfully overcomes this problem by adjusting the transmission range of the particles as soon as the particles closer to the control center die . Our experiments indicate that VTRP increases the ability of the network to report multiple events up to 100%, compared to LTP. We propose four different mechanisms for varying the transmission range of the particles that aim at different types of smart dust networks regarding particles densities and energy-saving criteria. Our experimental results show that VTRP can be easily modi ed to further improve its performance. Actually, VTRPp (where range is increased aggressively) and VTRPr (which randomizes between the various range change functions toward a better average case performance) successfully propagate about 50% more events than the basic VTRP and almost 200% more events than the original LTP protocol. 15.6.2 The Model The model considered here is an extension of the one presented in Section 15.2.1. In our model here (Figure 15.9), we assume that the transmission range (R) can vary (i.e., by setting the transmission power at appropriate levels) while the transmission angle (let it be ) is xed and cannot change throughout the operation of the network (since this would require a modi cation or movement of the antenna used). Note that the protocols we study in this work can operate even under the broadcast communication mode (i.e., = 2 ). The laser possibility is added for reducing energy dissipation in long-distance transmissions.
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VTRP: THE VARIABLE TRANSMISSION RANGE PROTOCOL
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Figure 15.9. Directed transmission of angle .
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Each particle can be in one of three different modes at any given time, regarding the energy consumption. These modes are (a) transmission of a message, (b) reception of a message, and (c) sensing of events. For the case of transmitting and receiving a message, we assume the following simple model where the radio dissipates Eelec to run the transmitter and receiver circuitry and amp for the transmit ampli er to achieve acceptable SNR (signal-tonoise ratio). We also assume an r 2 energy consumption due to channel transmission at distance r. Thus to transmit a k-bit message at distance r in our model, the radio expends ET (k, r) = ET elec (k) + ET amp (k, r) ET (k, r) = Eelec k + and to receive this message, the radio expends ER (k) = ER elec (k) ER (k, r) = Eelec k where ET elec , ER elec stand for the energy consumed by the transmitter s and receiver s electronics, respectively. Concluding, there are three different kinds of energy dissipation: r ET : Energy dissipation for transmission. r ER : Energy dissipation for receiving. r Eidle : Energy dissipation for idle state. For the idle state, we assume that the energy consumed for the circuity is constant for each time unit and equals Eelec (the time unit is 1 second). We note that in our simulations we explicitly measure the above energy costs. We feel that our model, although simple, depicts accurately enough the technological
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