Innovative Methods of Pitot-Static Measurement in Visual Studio .NET

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6.6.1 Innovative Methods of Pitot-Static Measurement
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Conventional pitot-static sensing methods have been described. More recently the use of pitot-static sensing plates have been adopted; particularly on stealth
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Pitot Line Standby ASI Forward Standby Altimeter Static Line
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DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUTS: (P 1 P 2) (P3 P4)
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aircraft where the use of conventional pitot-static probes can severely compromise the aircraft low observeable radar signature. These pressure plates are able to derive data relating to: Pitot pressure Static pressure Angle of attack ( ) Angle of sideslip ( )
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These sensors are utilised on aircraft such as the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber and have reportedly recently been tted to the F-22 Raptor. See Figure 6.15 for angle of attack and Figure 6.16 for angle of sideslip measurement con gurations.
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SIDESLIP
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Angle of sideslip measurement
Data sheets produced by Goodrich relating to the various pitot-static sensing probes and vanes and the theory and computation behind air data sensing may be found in the following references [1 to 6].
References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes; 4080 Lit 04/02 Marketing Publication; Rosemount Aerospace 2002. Angle of Attack Systems; 4070 Lit 03/02 Marketing Publication; Rosemount Aerospace 2002. Total Air Temperature Sensors; 4018 Lit 03/02 Marketing Publication; Rosemount Aerospace 2002. Multifunction Smart Probes; 4083 Lit 03/02 Marketing Publication; Rosemount Aerospace 2002. Multifunction Probes; 4015 Lit 08/04 Marketing Publication; Rosemount Aerospace 2002. Air Data Handbook; 4081 Lit 08/02 Marketing Publication; Rosemount Aerospace 2002.
Environmental Control Systems
7.1 Introduction
Throughout the operation of an aircraft, whether on the ground or in the air, the crew and passengers must be kept in comfortable conditions.They must be neither too hot nor too cold, they must have air to breathe and they must be kept in comfortable atmospheric pressure conditions. This is by no means easy, given the rapid changes in climatic conditions and internal temperatures seen by aircraft in ight from one destination to another. A military aircraft may have only a small crew, but the aircraft may be designed to perform in climatic extremes ranging from Arctic to full desert sunlight. A commercial aircraft may carry over 300 fare-paying passengers. In neither case can the human cargo be subjected to extremes of discomfort passengers will go to another airline and the military crew will not perform at their most effective. The environmental control system must cope with widely differing temperature conditions, must extract moisture and provide air with optimum humidity, and must ensure that the air in the aircraft always contains a suf cient concentration of oxygen and that it is safe to breathe. Modern systems do this and more, for the term environmental control also includes the provision of suitable conditions for the avionic, fuel and hydraulic systems by allowing heat loads to be transferred from one medium to another. In addition to these essentially comfort related tasks, environmental control systems provide de-misting, anti-icing, anti-g and rain dispersal services.
Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, electrical, and avionics subsystems integration, Third Edition . Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 978-0-470-05996-8
Environmental Control Systems
7.2 The Need for a Controlled Environment
In the early days of ight, pilots and passengers were prepared to brave the elements for the thrill of ying. However, as aircraft performance has improved and the operational role of both civil and military aircraft has developed, requirements for Environmental Control Systems (ECS) have arisen. They provide a favourable environment for the instruments and equipment to operate accurately and ef ciently, to enable the pilot and crew to work comfortably, and to provide safe and comfortable conditions for the fare-paying passengers. In the past, large heating systems were necessary at low speeds to make up for the losses to the cold air outside the aircraft. With many of today s military aircraft operating at supersonic speeds, the emphasis is more towards the provision of cooling systems, although heating is still required, for example on cold night ights and for rapid warm-up of an aircraft which has been soaked in freezing conditions on the ground for long periods. The retirement of Concorde has eliminated this as an issue for commercial aircraft. Providing suf cient heat for the aircraft air conditioning system is never a problem, since hot air can be bled from the engines to provide the source of conditioning air. The design requirement is to reduce the temperature of the air suf ciently to give adequate conditioning on a hot day. The worst case is that of cooling the pilot and avionics equipment in a high performance military aircraft [1]. The following heat sources give rise to the cooling problem: