Pitot Static Systems in .NET framework

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Pitot Static Systems
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Vertical Speed Indicator Deflection proportional to Ps - Pc
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Airspeed Deflection proportional to Pt - Ps
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Pt Ps Ps Pt = Dynamic Pressure Ps = Static Pressure Ps Pc
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Use of air data to drive ight instruments
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Three major parameters be calculated from the pitot-static pressure information sensed by the pitot and static probes or by a combined pitot-static probe as shown in the diagram: Airspeed may be calculated from the de ection in the left hand instrument where Pt and Ps are differentially sensed. Airspeed is proportionate to Pt Ps and therefore the mechanical de ection may be sensed and airspeed deduced. This may be converted into a meaningful display to the ight crew value in a mechanical instrument by the mechanical gearing between capsule and instrument dial Altitude may be calculated by the de ection of the static capsule in the centre instrument. Again in a mechanical instrument the instrument linkage provides the mechanical scaling to transform the data into a meaningful display Vertical speed may be deduced in the right hand instrument where the capsule de ection is proportional to the rate of change of static pressure with reference to a case pressure, Pe . Therefore the vertical speed is zero when the carefully sized bleed ori ce between capsule inlet and case allows these pressures to equalise The examples given above are typical for aircraft instruments used up to about 40 years ago. There are three methods of converting air data into useful aircraft related parameters etc. that the aircraft systems may use: On older aircraft conventional mechanical ight instruments may be used, these tend to be relatively unreliable, expensive to repair, and are limited in the information they can provide to an integrated system. Mechanical instruments are also widely used to provide standby or backup instrumentation
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On some integrated systems the pitot-static sensed pressures are fed into centralised Air Data Computers (ADCs). This allows centralisation of the air data calculations into dedicated units with computational power located in electrical bay racks. The ADCs can provide more accurate air data calculations more directly aligned to the requirements of a modern integrated avionics system. When combined with digital computation techniques within the ADC and the use of modern data buses such as MIL-STD-1553B, ARINC 429 and ARINC 629 to communicate with other aircraft systems, higher degrees of accuracy can be achieved and the overall aircraft system performance improved More modern civil aircraft developed in the late 1980s and beyond use Air Data Modules (ADMs) located at appropriate places in the aircraft to sense the pitot and static information as appropriate. This has the advantage that pitot-static lines can be kept to a minimum length reducing installation costs and the subsequent maintenance burden. By carefully selecting appropriate architecture greater redundancy and improved fault tolerance may be designed at an early stage, improving the aircraft dispatch availability An example of a modern air data system using ADMs is shown in Figure 6.14. This architecture equates to the probe con guration installation shown in Figure 6.12, namely, three pitot probes and a total of six static probes, three each on the left and right hand side of the aircraft. Figure 6.14 shows how these probes are connected to ADMs and the degree of redundancy that can be achieved: Each pitot probe is connected to an individual ADM so there is triple redundancy of pitot pressure sensing. Pitot probe 3 also connects to the mechanical standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI) that operates as shown in Figure 6.13 The four static probes represented by static probes 1 and 2, left and right are connected to individual ADMs effectively giving quadruple redundancy of static pressure. Static probes left and right are physically interconnected and linked to a further ADM while also providing the static pressure sensing for the mechanical standby ASI and standby altimeter see Figure 6.13 Each of the eight ADMs shown in this architecture can be identical, since each is merely sensing an air data pressure parameter pitot or static. The use of pin-programming techniques in the aircraft wiring means that an ADM may be installed in any location and will automatically adopt the personality required for that location The ADMs interconnect to the aircraft display and navigation systems by means of ARINC 429 data buses as shown in Figure 6.14
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