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Students often perceive the Internet as a valuable source for information (Ng & Gunstone, 2002), mainly because they can potentially access information on any topic at their convenience (Eveland & Dunwoody, 2000; Fidel, Davies, Douglass, Holder, Hopkins, Kushner, et al., 1999). It is not surprising, then, that the Internet is increasingly being used as a tool for information gathering and learning. Simply providing access to the Internet, however, may not be enough to facilitate learning. Indeed, having a rich knowledge base and/or providing supports to accommodate learners with a low knowledge 266
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Domain Knowledge and the Internet base are essential for learners to acquire knowledge when using the Internet (Lawless et al., 2006; Willoughby et al., under review). Unfortunately, the majority of hypermedia research investigating the effect of domain knowledge has included undergraduate students as participants. Therefore, there is limited research on children s learning with the Internet. The predominant focus on young adults is important as there are improvements in how much information can be held in working memory across development. For example, adult learners are able to recall a greater span of digits (Chi, 1978) and to-be-learned passages (Schneider, Korkel, & Weinert, 1989) in comparison to younger children. Throughout childhood and adolescence, there also is an increase in the ability to ignore distractions (Dempster, 1981), and in the ability to use memory strategies efficiently (Bjorklund & Schneider, 1996). Increases in these abilities may alleviate the cognitive demands associated with processing information, which then enables adult learners to attend to more information simultaneously or with less cognitive effort than younger learners (Schneider, 2000). In addition, language skills and writing competence increase dramatically over the early school years, which enable older children to approach the Internet with more tools to search and evaluate online information. As a result, younger children may interact with the Internet differently or even less efficiently than older learners. Therefore, different or additional learning challenges may surface if researchers take a developmental perspective. In conclusion, it is important that researchers investigate the relation between cognitive processes and domain knowledge for both adults and children when using the Internet. In addition, this needs to be done with the Internet instead of closed hypermedia (e.g., online library catalogs or single websites). Only after we fully understand the cognitive demands of the Internet, particularly for novices, can we create appropriate scaffolding to enhance their learning. Acknowledgments Support for this research was provided by a grant to Teena Willoughby from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and a grant to Teena Willoughby and Eileen Wood from the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. References
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Allen, B. (1991). Topic knowledge and online catalog search formulation. Library Quarterly, 61, 188 213. Alexander, P. A., Kulikowich, J. M., & Jetton, T. L. (1994). The role of subject-matter
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Malinda Desjarlais, Teena Willoughby, and Eileen Wood
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knowledge and interest in the processing of linear and nonlinear texts. Review of Educational Research, 64, 201 252. Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading. In P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of reading research. New York: Longman. Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., & Seibert, D. (2004). Does adaptive scaffolding facilitate students ability to regulate their learning with hypermedia Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 344 370. Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., Thomas, L., Seibert, D., & Tron, M. (2003). Online process scaffolding and students self-regulated learning with hypermedia. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago. Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., Winters, F. I., Moos, D. C., Levin, D. M., & Fried, D. (2004, April). Adaptive scaffolding and self-regulated learning from hypermedia: A developmental study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA. Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation (vol. 8, pp. 47 89). New York: Academic Press. Bjorklund, D. F., & Schneider, W. (1996). The interaction of knowledge, aptitude, and strategies in children s memory performance. In H. W. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (vol. 26., pp. 59 89). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Chase, W. G., & Simon, H. A. (1973). The mind s eye in chess. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing. New York: Academic Press. Chi, M. T. H. (1978). Children s thinking: What develops In R. S. Siegler (Ed.), Knowledge structures and memory development (pp. 73 96). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Curry, J., Haderlie, S., Ku, T., Lawless, K. A., Lemon, M., & Wood, R. (1999). Specified learning goals and their effect on learners representations of a hypertext reading environment. International Journal of Instructional Media, 26, 43 52. Dempster, F. N. (1981). Memory span: Sources of individual and developmental differences. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 63 100. Dillon, A., & Gabbard, R. (1998). Hypermedia as an educational technology: A review of the quantitative research literature on learner comprehension, control, and style. Review of Educational Research, 68, 322 349. Downing, R. E., Moore, J. L., & Brown, S. W. (2005). The effects and interaction of spatial visualization and domain expertise on information seeking. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 195 209. Dryburgh, H. (2001). Changing our ways: Why and how Canadians use the Internet. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.ca/cgi-bin/downpub/listpub.cgi catno=56F 0006XIE2000001 Environics Research Group. (2001, November). Young Canadians in a wired world: Phase 2. Retrieved from http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/research/YCWW/ phaseII/students.cfm
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