Interrelationships of internal states in VS .NET

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Interrelationships of internal states
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Although input variables influence cognition, affect, and arousal, these internal states also can exert substantial influence on each other; cognition and arousal have been shown to influence affect (Schachter & Singer, 1962) and affect can influence cognition and arousal (Bower, 1978). When arousal is too high, the learning of new information may be inhibited. When it is too low, the lack of motivation can also reduce the ability to learn. Furthermore, hostile cognitions or angry affect can determine the scripts and knowledge structures that guide a person s behavior.
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Learning encounters
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The factors that constitute the present internal state lead to appraisal and decision-making processes that result in some kind of action. This action can be either thoughtful or impulsive, depending on factors such as the valence of the appraisal and the presence of sufficient attentional resources to give the action more careful consideration. In an educational context, an example of such an action is trying to recall the answer to a test question. The entire episode, from input variables to the action that eventually results may be described as a learning encounter (see Figure 3.2). Playing a videogame may be thought of as a series of learning encounters. A single learning encounter within a videogame may last only a few seconds, or it can even last hours. 68
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How and What Do Videogames Teach
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Figure 3.2. The General Learning Model: expanded causes and processes.
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According the General Learning Model, learning encounters have both short term and long term effects on an individual. A learning encounter may exert short term effects on an individual through both person variables and situation variables that make up the inputs of subsequent learning encounters. Of more interest is the potential of these episodes to produce long term effects, through repeated episodes of a similar type. Such repeated episodes can result in changes in personality processes, long term affective changes, and changes to a variety of types of knowledge structures (e.g., content information, procedures, beliefs, attitudes, perceptual schemata for both basic and social patterns, behavioral scripts, and expectation schemata). To relate this back to learning from videogames, an example of such a long term change is that repeatedly playing a videogame that includes a specific form of violence (e.g., gang warfare) could lead to the development of behavioral scripts for that type of violence. Similarly, repeated exposure to videogames that simulate the operations of a business (e.g., Sim Theme Park) could lead to the development of knowledge structures (including scripts) for such business operations. Learning encounters can also exert long term effects by influencing the situational variables that make up the input of future episodes. This may 69
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Edward L. Swing and Craig A. Anderson happen when changes in knowledge structures affect an individual s relationship with teachers, parents, or peers. The development of different knowledge structures may also produce changes by influencing the types of social and non-social situations an individual is likely to encounter. As an example of how such a change in personality might occur, a series of learning encounters that led a person to expect hostile reactions from their peers could lead the person to seek out or create situations in which aggression and confrontation are more likely. Similarly, improvements in school performance brought about by repeated exposure to educational videogames could lead to improved relationships with teachers and parents, and to seeking out additional situational contexts that have academic possibilities.
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Videogame Effects
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As with any type of media, videogames have the potential to have positive or negative effects on the people who play them. However, videogames are of particular interest because they are very effective teaching tools. Before examining the reasons videogames are effective at teaching, it is worth covering some of the important distinctions concerning videogame effects.
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