A total of 12 subjects have been tested in Experiment Two. in .NET

Creation PDF 417 in .NET A total of 12 subjects have been tested in Experiment Two.
A total of 12 subjects have been tested in Experiment Two.
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HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN MOTION PLANNING
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Performance Criteria. Two criteria have been used to measure subjects performance in the tasks:
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1. The length of generated path (called Path) 2. The task completion time (called Time) In the labyrinth tests the path length is the actual length of the path a subject generates in the labyrinth. In the arm manipulator test the path length is measured as the sum of two modulo link rotation angles in radians. Time, in seconds, is the time it takes a subject to complete the task.
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Statistical Considerations. In statistical terms, the length of path and the completion time are dependent variables, and the test conditions, as represented by factors and levels, are independent variables. If, for example, we want to compare the effect of a visible scene versus invisible scene on the length of paths produced by the subjects, then visibility is an independent variable (with two values, visible and invisible), and the length of path is a dependent variable. As one would expect, the dependent variables Path and Time are highly correlated: In Experiment One the correlation coef cient between the two is r(Path, Time) = 0.74. A multivariate observation for a particular subject is the set of scores of this subject in a given task; it is thus a vector. For example, for Subject 1 the dependent variable vector (Path, Time) in Task 1 (virtual-visible-LtoR) happened to be (59; 175). The concept of statistical signi cance (see e.g., [127]) is a quantitative index of reliability of a given result or statement, usually in terms of a variable in question. Speci cally, the signi cance p-level represents the probability of an error involved in accepting an observed result (or statement) as valid, or as representative of the population. In practice, results corresponding to the signi cance level p 0.05 are usually considered signi cant. Put differently, p-level indicates the probability of error when rejecting some related null hypothesis. A null hypothesis, denoted as H0 , relates to making a statement about the observation data for example, when deciding whether two sets of data came from the same population of data. If a statistical test suggests that the null hypothesis should be rejected, say with signi cance level p 0.01, we can conclude that the two samples differ signi cantly, or that the variable of interest has a signi cant effect on the sample data. If the test results suggest accepting the null hypothesis, we conclude that the two samples do not differ signi cantly, and hence the variable of interest has no effect on the sample data.
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7.3.2 Test Protocol The salient characteristics of the test protocol can be summarized as follows (more details on the experiment design and test conditions can be found in Ref. 121):
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RESULTS EXPERIMENT ONE
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The primary focus in the study is on tests with the arm manipulator (see Figure 7.5). The labyrinth test is used only as a benchmark, for introducing the subjects to the tests and the study s underlying ideas. The bulk of the subject pool for this study was paid undergraduate students and also some graduate students. (There was no statistical difference in performance between the two groups.) In the rst session, about one hour long, a subject would be taught how to carry out a test and would be given a pilot test to ascertain that he/she can be submitted to the test; the latter would be different from the pilot test. The maximum time a subject was given to nish the test with the arm manipulator was 15 minutes. Much less was allowed for the labyrinth test: As a rule, 1 2 minutes were enough. These limits were chosen as a rough estimate of the time the subjects would need to complete a test without feeling time pressure. Most subjects nished their tasks well within the time allocation; those few who didn t were not likely to nish even with signi cantly more time. Measures were taken to eliminate the effect of a subject s memory recall, or information passing, from one task to another. In the invisible version of the arm test, rotating the whole scene on the computer screen for a consequent session would practically eliminate the effect of memorization from prior sessions. This also helps from the test protocol standpoint: Using the same scene in subsequent tests allows for an apples-with-apples assessment of subjects performance.
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7.4 RESULTS EXPERIMENT ONE The basic (descriptive) statistics for motion planning tests carried out in Experiment One are given in Table 7.1. Statistics are given separately for each dependent variable, the length of path (Path) and the time to completion in seconds (Time), and within each dependent variable for each of the eight tasks listed in Section 7.3.1. Each line in Table 7.1 refers to a given task and includes the number of tested subjects ( Valid N statistics) as well as the mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation of the correspondent variable. A quick glance at the table provides a few observations that we will address in more detail later. One surprise is that the subjects performance with the rightto-left direction of motion was signi cantly worse than their performance with the left-to-right direction of motion: Depending on the task, the mean length of path for the right-to-left direction is about two to ve times longer than that for the left-to-right direction.10
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This alone would make a smart robot conclude that we humans are terribly inconsistent: What prevents one, the robot would think, from going from point B to point A along the same path one takes when going from A to B!
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