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The le server now creates the loader thread, which provides the executable loader service for the rest of the OS, and waits for it to signal that it is ready. The loader initializes itself by creating the server objects and initializing its lename cache. The le server now completes initialization of the local drive collection and prepares its noti cation service before creating a nal slave thread to continue startup. Finally it begins to service le server requests. The OS can now service load requests against executable les found in the XIP ROM (as this is the only le system that is mounted!). The slave thread picks up the trail and now makes requests to the loader to install the local media sub-system drivers and physical media drivers, preparing the le server for mounting the full set of le systems. The last action of the slave thread is to create the second user process: ESTART.EXE. ESTART does phone-speci c initialization, which is why it is separated from the generic EFILE.EXE. ESTART initializes the local le systems one by one, installing and mounting the required le systems over each medium for example LFFS on a NOR Flash memory. ESTART can also be con gured to use error detection and repair tools (such as scandisk) on le systems that were not shutdown in an orderly way or to format disks when the phone is booted for the rst time. Once the read/write le systems are available, ESTART locates the persistent HAL settings on the internal drive and restores them to the HAL. This is also where the current language and locale settings are identi ed and restored from disk. When we reach this point, all of the kernel, user library and le server services are now fully initialized and ready for the rest of the OS to begin its startup process. ESTART has done its job, and it now creates the next process in the chain, the system starter.
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16.1.5 The system starter
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The system starter provides a framework for the mobile phone to start and maintain all of the services necessary for normal operation. This framework is driven by a con guration le that the phone manufacturer constructs. The system starter also allows for multiple startup scenarios (some of which are described in Section 16.2.2) by supporting the selection of different con guration les. Just as with the kernel and le server, the order in which the system services are initialized is important. This is to respect dependencies between services and to ensure that vital services are started rst. In particular, on a mobile phone one would like the telephone functionality to be ready as soon as possible. During normal system boot, we would expect that this component would rst start the various low level communications, audio and graphics services. One vital server to initialize before the user interface can appear
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ALTERNATIVE STARTUP SCENARIOS
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is the window server (discussed in 11, The Window Server ), which provides shared access to the UI hardware on the phone, such as the display, keypad and touch screen. Once the window server is running then the rest of the application and UI framework can initialize, and nally the telephone application is run.
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16.2 Alternative startup scenarios
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16.2.1 Booting from NAND Flash memory
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In Section 16.1, I brie y described NAND Flash memory, and particularly noted its inability to be used for XIP software. In 9, The File Server, I discussed this type of Flash and its use for both user data storage and for storing built-in software. That alone is not enough to enable the system to boot from such memory, because the ROFS (read-only le system) relies on the kernel, le server and loader to copy the executable code into memory and prepare it for execution. So how do we get these fundamental services running to support loading the main OS from a ROFS image Figure 16.3 shows the modi ed startup stages for booting from NAND Flash. There are now two extra stages before the bootstrap is run: 1a. NAND Flash provides a very basic XIP service to allow a system to boot the rst 512-byte sector of the memory can be shadowed into some internal RAM and executed from there. This rst sector must contain enough code to carry out the rst step in loading the entire OS. The miniboot does this, by providing the essential CPU and memory setup, before loading the rest of the rst Flash block (typically 16 KB) into RAM and continuing execution from there The program in this larger block is the coreloader. This understands the partitioning of the NAND Flash and the bad block algorithm, which I discussed in 9, The File Server. This allows it to locate and load the core image into RAM. The core image is an XIP image, which must at least contain all of the code required to initialize the kernel and le server and install the ROFS le system. The core image may be compressed, as this saves space in the Flash. Once the core image is loaded, the core loader executes the entry point in the XIP image (the bootstrap) and boot continues as for the XIP sequence for a while.
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The XIP boot sequence is then modi ed once more during le system initialization. The le system con guration for NAND Flash typically will combine both the XIP ROM le system and the ROFS le system under a single drive identi er, as I described in 9, The File Server. This
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