Admission Control for Elastic Traf c in .NET

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Admission Control for Elastic Traf c
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Admission control, by limiting the number of ows using any given link, ensures that throughput never decreases below some minimum acceptable level for ows that are admitted. Exactly what would constitute a minimum acceptable throughput is not clear. The choice depends on a trade-off between the extra utility of accepting a new ow and the risk that existing transfers would be prematurely interrupted if their rate were decreased. It does seem clear that such a minimum exists (through it may be different for different users) since otherwise a saturated network would be unstable [22]. Admission control does not necessarily imply a complex ow setup stage with explicit signaling exchanges between user and network nodes. This would be quite unacceptable for most elastic ows, which are of very short duration. We envisage a network rather similar to the present Internet where users simply send their data as and when they wish. However, nodes implementing admission control would keep a record of the identities of existing ows currently traversing each link in order to be
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16.5 TOWARD A SIMPLE SERVICE MODEL
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able to recognize the arrival of a packet from a new ow. Such a packet would be accepted and its identi er added to the list of active ows if the number of ows currently in progress were less than a threshold, and would otherwise be rejected. A ow would be erased from the list if it sent no packets during a certain time-out interval. Although many additional practical considerations would need to be addressed, such a control procedure does seem feasible technically given recent developments in router technology [17, 19]. Note, nally, that knowledge of the state of network links in terms of the number of ows currently in progress would also allow intelligent routing strategies where ows are not sent blindly to saturated links when other paths are available. 16.5 TOWARD A SIMPLE SERVICE MODEL
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Given the above discussion on possible control options, it is tempting to speculate on the simplest service model capable of meeting identi ed requirements. 16.5.1 Service Classes
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We envisage a service model with just two service classes, one based on open-loop control for stream traf c and the other using closed-loop control for elastic traf c. In this service model, ows destined for the rst class declare just a peak rate that is actively policed by packet spacing at the network ingress. Measurement-based admission control would be used to ensure negligible data loss assuming bufferless multiplexing. Although, in practice, a small buffer is necessary to account for the non uid nature of traf c, delay and delay variation remain very small. Loss and delay performance are independent of any long-range dependence in the rate process of ows. A low loss rate (10 9 , say) is compatible with a reasonable average link utilization (50%, say) if the peak rate of ows is not more than a small fraction of the 1 link bandwidth (100, say) [26, Chap. 16]. The necessary characteristics of the closed-loop control are less well understood. We can rely on users reacting intelligently to congestion signals, as in TCP, if the network additionally implements queue management mechanisms preventing uncooperative ows from adversely affecting the quality of service of other users. A promising solution is to perform per ow queueing with ow identi cation performed ``on the y,'' as suggested by Suter et al. [29]. The identi cation of the set of ows currently using a link allows the implementation of a simple admission control procedure whereby any packets from new ows are rejected when the number of ows in progress exceeds a link-capacity-dependent threshold. Sharing link capacity dynamically between stream and elastic ows is advantageous for both types of traf c: a very low loss rate for stream traf c is not incompatible with reasonable utilization if elastic traf c constitutes a signi cant proportion of the total load; elastic ows gain greater throughput by being able to exploit the residual capacity necessarily left over by stream traf c to meet data loss
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