12: ADDING JUST ENOUGH JAVASCRIPT in .NET framework

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CHAPTER 12: ADDING JUST ENOUGH JAVASCRIPT
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fruit[3]= plums ; document.write(fruit[1]); var myFruit=fruit.pop(); document.write( <br> +myFruit + <br> ); document.write(fruit.length); </script> <meta http-equiv= Content-Type content= text/html; charset=UTF-8 > <title>Array 1</title> </head> </html>
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The result of the preceding program are the words peaches, plums, and 3 on the screen. Peaches was pulled out of the array by number reference and placed into a screen output function. Then using the pop() method, the element on the top of the array was placed into a variable named myFruit and displayed to the screen. Finally, the pop() method removed one element from the array and placed it into the myFruit variable, so now the array has a length of 3 and that s what s shown on the screen. Each element in an array works just like a variable. The difference is that it s part of a larger object the array.
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OBJECTS
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The final data type used to store values is an object. (Wasn t the Array an object Yep. You re already ahead of the game!) All objects are similar to arrays in that they can hold more than a single value. However, objects have several built-in properties. The properties have either fixed values (called constants) or values that change depending on the circumstances. Even the Array object has a built-in property length. It returns the number of elements in the array. So, if you add the following two lines to the array program in the previous section, you ll see how big the array is:
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... document.write(fruit[1]); //Add the following two lines document.write( <br> ); document.write(fruit.length);
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The value of fruit.length is 4 it s always one greater than the highest-numbered array element because the length is the actual number of elements in the array beginning with the value 1. (It s one-based instead of zero-based.) Some properties of objects are called methods. A method is a function that does something in relation to the object. For example, an Array object method is pop(). The pop() method returns the last element in the array. It s a way that you can assign a variable an object s method just as you can assign a variable a function. Let s fix up that program from the last section again. This time, the variable myFruit is assigned fruit.pop(). That means whatever is on the top of the array stack is removed. However, if used in a variable assignment, it assigns the removed element to the variable as the following fix-up of the previous snippet shows:
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PART IV: DYNAMIC HTML5 TAGS PLUS A LITTLE JAVASCRIPT AND PHP
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... document.write(fruit[1]); //Add the following three lines var myFruit=fruit.pop(); document.write( <br> + myFruit + <br> ); document.write(fruit.length);
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When you test the program from the previous section with the above changes, you ll see that the last added element has a value of plum, and that s what is printed to the screen. However, the length is no longer 4, but now 3. That s because the pop() method removes the element from the array. (By the way, the var in front of the myFruit variable is optional to declare a variable, but it helps to distinguish it from the array elements in this listing.)
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Creating your own objects
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If you create a few of your own objects, you can get an idea of how objects work in the DOM. Also, to help clarify things, from now on, a reference to an object s properties in general refers to both properties and methods. However, when I get specific in talking about an object s individual parts, the reference will be either to a property (some characteristic of the object) or a method (a function associated with the object). Making objects is similar to declaring variables and assigning them values. The object itself is sort of a base of operations for doing a lot of different things and having different characteristics. The first step is simply to use a name and the keyword new. For example, the following declares an object named AddingMachine:
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AddingMachine=new Object();
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Next, to add a property, you invent a new name for the property and assign it a value. The object name and its property are separated by a dot (.). For example, the following adds a property named firstNumber and assigns it a value of 4:
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AddingMachine.firstNumber=4;
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Just like a variable, you can change the firstNumber value to something else. To add a method (a function) is just as easy. However, instead of using a named function, you use an anonymous one. For example, the following adds the value of two properties for the AddingMachine object and sends them to the screen:
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AddingMachine.total=function() { document.write(this.firstNumber + this.secondNumber); }
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The keyword this is a reference to AddingMachine. It s the same as writing Adding Machine.firstNumber. Notice also that function() has no name it s anonymous.
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