PART I: THE LANGUAGE OF THE WEB in Visual Studio .NET

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PART I: THE LANGUAGE OF THE WEB
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<h1>Los Angeles Dodgers<br> (Formerly of Brooklyn)</h1> </body> </html>
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When you launch the page, the colors come out precisely as you instructed, as shown in Figure 4-2.
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Figure 4-2: Setting colors with RGB percentages.
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A second way to assign colors using percentages is to use a hue-saturation-light (HSL) model. The big advantage of HSL is that lightness is symmetrical. That makes it easier to tweak a color to what you d like it to be. By thinking of a color circle arranged around 360 degrees like a compass, you select a hue. At the top, or 0 percent, you find the reds. Moving clockwise, at 30 percent the hues turn red-yellow. At 60 percent, they re yellow. And so on around the color spectrum until you re at 360 percent (0 percent) where you re back to the red hues. For designers who understand the color spectrum, this makes choosing colors much easier. To create a lighter color, increase the light value; decrease the light value to make the color darker. For example, suppose you re trying to get just the right shade of red. You start with the following color assignment:
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hsl(0,100%,50%);
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Notice that the first value is not a percentage. That s because it has values between 0 and 359 the 360 degrees of a circle. (Remember: 0 and 360 are the same point on the circle.) By raising and lowering the light (the third parameter), you can make your color lighter or darker which is far more intuitive than changing RGB percentages. The following HTML5/CSS3 script (HSLColor.html in this chapter s folder at www.wiley.com/go/ smashinghtml5) shows how easy it is to lower and raise the light value to get just the right shade of red.
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<!DOCTYPE HTML> <html> <head>
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CHAPTER 4: WORKING WITH COLOR VALUES
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<style type= text/css > .redBase { color:hsl(0, 100%, 50%); } .redDarker { color:hsl(0, 100%, 25%); } .redLighter { color:hsl(0, 100%, 75%); } </style> <meta http-equiv= Content-Type content= text/html; charset=UTF-8 > <title>HSL Color Assignment</title> </head> <body> <h1 class= redBase >Red Base</h1> <h1 class= redDarker >Red Darker</h1> <h1 class= redLighter >Red Lighter</h1> </body> </html>
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When first using HSL, it helps to think of adding light by going higher to the sun or making it darker by going lower into a well. The tweaking process is easier for designers to get just what they want. Figure 4-3 shows what the different red tints look like. 69
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Figure 4-3: HSL makes tweaking tints easy.
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Hue and light are fairly intuitive to understand, but saturation can be a little murky. Essentially, saturation is the amount of colorfulness in a given color. A 100 percent saturation is the full colorfulness of a hue in a given light, while a lower percent subtracts from a hue something like a color fading. For all colors, a midpoint light is going to be gray when saturation is 0 percent. Sometimes a faded or muted color is preferred, like blue jeans that have been washed many times.
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PART I: THE LANGUAGE OF THE WEB RGB DECIMAL INTEGER SETTINGS
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A second way of mixing your colors using the rgb() value assignment is to insert values from 0 to 255 (a total of 256 values because you count the 0), instead of the percentages used in the earlier example. The value 256 represents the number of possible combinations on two 8-bit bytes. In other words, it s based on how a computer stores and processes information. With a set of three values from 0 to 255, you can generate 16,777,216 combinations. However, color technology is far more complex than we can possibly discuss here, and modern color processing keeps generating better color processors. Suffice it to say, you can generate lots of colors with those combinations of red, green, and blue. Here s the format to assign a color value:
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rgb(integerR, integerG, integerB);
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For example, yellow, which mixes red and green would be
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rgb(255,255,0);
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It s not as intuitive as HSL, but after a while, you start getting a sense of mixes based on 256 values rather than percentages. The following example (DecColor.html in this chapter s folder at www.wiley.com/go/smashinghtml5) shows a simple implementation.
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