Network Protocols in Java

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Network Protocols
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What is a protocol
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A network protocol is similar to a human protocol, except that the entities exchanging messages and taking actions are hardware or software components of a computer network, components that we will study shortly in the following sections All activity in the Internet that involves two or more communicating remote entities is governed by a protocol Protocols in routers determine a packet's path from source to destination; hardware-implemented protocols in the network interface cards of two physically connected computers control the flow of bits on the "wire" between the two computers; a congestion control protocol controls the rate at which packets are transmitted between sender and receiver Protocols are running everywhere in the Internet, and consequently much of this book is about computer network protocols
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Figure 12-1: A human protocol and a computer network protocol As an example of a computer network protocol with which you are probably familiar, consider what happens when you make a request to a WWW server, ie, when you type in the URL of a WWW page into your web browser The scenario is illustrated in the right half of Figure 12-1 First, your computer will send a so-called "connection request" message to the WWW server and wait for a reply The WWW server will eventually receive your connection request message and return a "connection reply" message Knowing that it is now OK to request the WWW document, your computer then sends the name of the WWW page it wants to fetch from that WWW server in a "get" message Finally, the WWW server returns the contents of the WWW document to your computer Given the human and networking examples above, the exchange of messages and the actions taken when these messages are sent and received are the key defining elements of a protocol: A protocol defines the format and the order of messages exchanged between two or more communicating entities, as well as the actions taken on the transmission and/or receipt of a message
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What is a protocol
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The Internet, and computer networks in general, make extensive use of protocols Different protocols are used to accomplish different communication tasks As you read through this book, you will learn that some protocols are simple and straightforward, while others are complex and intellectually deep Mastering the field of computer networking is equivalent to understanding the what, why and how of networking protocols
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Copyright Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose 1996-2000
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End systems, protocols, and end-to-end service models
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13 The Network Edge
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In the previous sections we presented a high-level description of the Internet and networking protocols We are now going to delve a bit more deeply into the components of the Internet We begin in this section at the edge of network and look at the components with which we are most familiar -- the computers (eg, PCs and workstations) that we use on a daily basis In the next section we will move from the network edge to the network core and examine switching and routing in computer networks Then in Section 15 we will discuss the actual physical links that carry the signals sent between the computers and the switches
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131 End Systems, Clients and Servers
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In computer networking jargon, the computers that we use on a daily basis are often referred to as or hosts or end systems They are referred to as "hosts" because they host (run) application-level programs such as a Web browser or server program, or an e-mail program They are also referred to as "end systems" because they sit at the "edge" of the Internet, as shown in Figure 13-1 Throughout this book we will use the terms hosts and end systems interchangeably, that is, host = end system Hosts are sometimes further divided into two categories: clients and servers Informally, clients often tend to be desktop PC's or workstations, while servers are more powerful machines But there is a more precise meaning of a client and a server in computer networking In the so-called client-server model, a client program running on one end system requests and receives information from a server running on another end system This client-server model is undoubtedly the most prevalent structure for Internet applications We will study the client-server model in detail in 2 The Web, e-mail, file transfer, remote login (eg, Telnet), newgroups and many other popular applications adopt the client-server model Since a client typically runs on one computer and the server runs on another computer, clientserver Internet applications are, by definition, distributed applications The client and the server interact with each other by communicating (ie, sending each other messages) over the Internet At this level of abstraction, the routers, links and other "pieces" of the Internet serve as a "black box" that transfers messages between the distributed, communicating components of an Internet application This is the level of abstraction depicted in Figure 13-1
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