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Figure 68-7: shared-explicit reservations In each of the above examples the three receivers used the same reservation style Because receivers make independent decisions, the receivers participating in a session could use different styles RSVP does not permit, however, reservations of different styles to be merged
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685 Soft State
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The reservations in the routers and hosts are maintained with soft states By this it is meant that each reservation for bandwidth stored in a router has an associated timer If a reservation's timer expires, then the reservation is removed If a receiver desires to maintain a reservation, it must periodically refresh the reservation by sending reservation messages A receiver can also change its reservation (eg, the amount of bandwidth or the senders it wants to receive from) by adjusting its reservation in its stream of refresh messages The senders must also refresh the path state by periodically sending path messages When a route changes, the next path message initializes the path state on the new route, and future reservation messages will establish reservation state in the route The state on the old segments of the route will time out Soft state, whereby the state is maintained with refresh messages, is used by many other protocols in data networking For example, as we learned in 5, in the routing tables in transparent bridges, the entries are refreshed by data packets that arrive to the bridge; entries that are not refreshed are timedout A protocol that takes explicit actions to modify or release state is called a hard-state protocol An example of a hard-state protocol is TCP, whereby the connection does not timeout if it stops being used; instead one side of the connection must explicitly destroy the connection
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686 Transport of Reservation Messages
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RSVP messages are sent hop-by-hop directly over IP Thus the RSVP message is placed in the information field of the IP datagram; the protocol number in the IP datagram is set to 46 Because IP is unreliable, RSVP messages are not acknowledged upon arrival If an RSVP path or reservation message is lost, a replacement refresh message should arrive soon An RSVP reservation message that originates in a host will have the host's IP address in the source address field of the encapsulating IP datagram It will have the IP address of the first router along the reserve-path in the multicast tree in destination address in the encapsulating IP datagram When the IP datagram arrives at the first router, the router strips off the IP fields and passes the reservation message to the router's RSVP module The RSVP module examines the messages multicast address (ie, session identifier) and style type, examines its current state, and then acts appropriately; for example, the RSVP module may merge the reservation with a reservation originating from another interface and then send a
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file:///D|/Downloads/Livros/computa o/Computer%20Neown%20Approach%20Featuring%20the%20Internet/rsvphtm (10 of 12)20/11/2004 15:52:57
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new reservation message to the next router upstream in the multicast tree
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Because a reservation request that fails an admission test may embody a number of requests merged together, a reservation error must be reported to all the concerned receivers These reservation errors are reported within ResvError messages The receivers can then reduce the amount of resource that they request and try reserving again The RSVP standard provides mechanisms to allow the backtracking of the reservations when insufficient resources are available; unfortunately, these mechanisms add significant complexity to the RSVP protocol Furthermore, RSVP suffers from the so-called killerreservation problem, whereby a receiver requests over and over again a large reservation, each time getting its reservation rejected due to lack of sufficient resources Because this large reservation may have been merged with smaller reservations downstream, the large reservation may be excluding smaller reservations from being established To solve this thorny problem, RSVP uses the ResvError messages to establish additional state in routers, called blockade state Blockade state in a router modifies the merging procedure to omit the offending reservation from the merge, allowing a smaller request to be forwarded and established The blockade state adds yet further complexity to the RSVP protocol and its implementation
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