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Figure 52-5: An example CRC calculation Figure 52-5 illustrates this calculation for the case of D = 101110, d = 6 and G = 1001, r=3 The nine bits transmitted in this case are 101110 011 You should check these calculations for yourself and also check that indeed D2r = 101011 * G XOR R International standards have been defined for 8-, 12-, 16- and 32-bit generators, G An 8-bit CRC is used to protect the 5-byte header in ATM cells The CRC-32 32-bit standard, which has been adopted in a number of link-level IEEE protocols, uses a generator of GCRC-32 = 100000100110000010001110110110111 Each of the CRC standards can detect burst errors of less than r+1 bits and any odd number of bit errors Furthermore, under appropriate assumptions, a burst of length greater than r+1 bits is detected with probability 1 - 05r The theory behind CRC codes and even more powerful codes is beyond the scope of this text The text [Schwartz 1980] provides an excellent introduction to this topic
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References
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[Biersak 1992] EW Biersack, "Performance evaluation of forward error correction in ATM networks", Proc ACM Sigcomm Conference, (Baltimore, MD 1992), pp 248-257 [Byers 1998] J Byers, M Luby, M Mitzenmacher, A Rege, "A digital fountain approach to reliable distribution of bulk data," Proc ACM Sigcomm Conference, (Vancouver, 1998), pp 56-67 [Feldmeier 1995] D Feldmeier, "Fast Software Implementation of Error Detection Codes," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol 3, No 6 (Dec 1995), pp 640 -652 [Fletcher 1982] JG Fletcher, "An Arithmetic Checksum for Serial Transmissions", IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol 30, No 1 (January 1982), pp 247-253 [McAuley 1984] A McAuley, "Weighted Sum Codes for Error Detection and Their Comparison with Existing Codes", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol 2, No 1 (February 1994), pp 16-22 [Nonnenmacher 1998] J Nonnenmacher, E Biersak, D Towsley, "Parity-Based Loss Recovery for Reliable Multicast Transmission," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, Vol 6, No 4 (Aug 1998), Pages 349 361 [RFC 1071] B Draden, D Borman, C Partridge, "Computing the Internet Checksum," RFC 1071, Sept 1988 [Rubenstein 1998] D Rubenstein, J Kurose, D Towsley ``Real-Time Reliable Multicast Using Proactive Forward Error Correction'' , Proceedings of NOSSDAV '98 , (Cambridge, UK, July 1998) [Schwartz 1980] M Schwartz, Information, Transmission, Modulation, and Noise, McGraw Hill, NY, NY 1980 [Shacham 1990] N Shacham, P McKenney, "Packet Recovery in High-Speed Networks Using Coding and Buffer Management", Proc IEEE Infocom Conference, (San Francisco, 1990), pp 124-131 [Spragins 1991] J D Spragins, Telecommunications protocols and design , Addison-Wesley, Reading MA, 1991 [Strayer 1992] WT Strayer, B Dempsey, AWeaver, XTP: The Xpress Transfer Protocol, Addison Wesley, Reading MA, 1992
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Copyright 1999-2000 Keith W Ross and Jim Kurose All Rights Reserved
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53 Multiple Access Protocols and LANs
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In the introduction to this chapter, we noted that there are two types of network links: point-to-point links, and broadcast links A point-to-point link consists of a single sender on one end of the link, and a single receiver at the other end of the link Many link-layer protocols have been designed for point-to-point links; PPP (the point-to-point protocol) and HDLC are two such protocols that we'll cover later in this chapter The second type of link, a broadcast link, can have multiple sending and receiving nodes all connected to the same, single, shared broadcast channel The term "broadcast" is used here because when any one node transmits a frame, the channel broadcasts the frame and each of the other nodes receives a copy Ethernet is probably the most widely deployed broadcast link technology; we'll cover Ethernet in detail in section 55 In this section we'll take step back from specific link layer protocols and first examine a problem of central importance to the data link layer: how to coordinate the access of multiple sending and receiving nodes to a shared broadcast channel - the so-called multiple access problem Broadcast channels are often used in local area networks (LANs), networks that are geographically concentrated in a single building (or on a corporate or university campus) Thus, we'll also look at how multiple access channels are used in LANs at the end of this section
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Figure 53-1: Various multiple access channels We are all familiar with the notion of broadcasting, as television has been using it since its invention But traditional television is a one-way broadcast (ie, one fixed node transmitting to many receiving nodes), while nodes on a computer network broadcast channel can both send and receive Perhaps a more apt human analogy for a broadcast channel is a cocktail party, where many people gather together in a large room (the air providing the broadcast medium) to talk and listen A second good analogy is something many readers will be familiar with - a classroom where teacher(s) and student(s) similarly share the same, single, broadcast medium A central problem in both scenarios is that of determining who gets to talk (ie, transmit into the channel), and when As humans, we've evolved an elaborate set of protocols for sharing the broadcast channel ("Give everyone a chance to speak" "Don't speak until you are spoken to" "Don't monopolize the conversation" "Raise your hand if you have question" "Don't interrupt when someone is speaking" "Don't fall asleep when someone else is talking") Computer networks similarly have protocols - so-called multiple access protocols - by which nodes regulate their transmission onto the shared broadcast channel As shown in Figure 53-1, multiple access protocols are needed in a wide variety of network settings, including both wired and wireless local area networks, and satellite networks Figure 53-2 takes a more abstract view of the broadcast channel and of the nodes sharing that channel Although technically
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