EMERGING FOOD TECHNOLOGIES in VS .NET

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UV light chamber UV light lamp Milk inoculated with S. aureus V-groove reflector UV-treated milk
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Schematic diagram of a continuous milk treatment system (20).
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short duration (a few hundred microseconds) is emitted when the high current passes through the gas in the lamp. The system is designed in a way that the frequency of ashing, number of lamps, and ashing con guration can be adjusted to suit different processing requirements. Critical process factors in uencing the microbiocidal effect include characteristics of light such as wavelength, intensity, duration and number of the pulses, and packaging and food attributes (type, transparency, and color) (18). The number of lamps, their position, orientation, and design have a direct relevance to the energy delivered and dose effectiveness, and they determine the extent of lethality (20). The effect of pulsed UV light is also in uenced by the distance of sample from the light source, treatment time, opacity of the liquid, and presence of particulate materials. For heat-sensitive products, such as minimally processed fruits and vegetables, a cooling system is usually used to reduce the thermal effect due to light absorption by the product (19). Figure 8.5 shows a continuous milk treatment system using pulsed UV light treatment (20). An input voltage of 3800 V is required for the pulsed light sterilization system to produce polychromatic radiation in the wavelength range of 100 to 1100 nm, with 54% of the energy in the UV light region. The light generated is of three pulses per second and 1.27 J/cm2 per pulse. A peristaltic pump is used to pump milk through a quartz tube (1.14 cm i.d., 1.475 cm o.d.) exposed to pulsed UV light. The distance between the quartz window and the central axis of the lamp is 5.8 cm. The total exposure length of the quartz tube is 28 cm. A V-groove re ector setup is used to hold the quartz tube and change the distance between the quartz tube and the UV light source. This re ector has a polished surface re ecting the energy back to the quartz that enhances the energy absorption by milk in the quartz tube. 8.3.3 Research Status and Applications
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The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already approved pulsed UV light for use on food materials and packaging (21). The major present
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application for pulsed UV light processing is in the decontamination of pharmaceuticals, water, air, and food packaging as well as baked goods. Pulsed UV light processing effectively inactivates vegetative bacteria, as well as bacterial and mold spores (18, 20). It is particularly effective in decontaminating dry and smooth surfaces, such as shell eggs and packaging material (22). It can also signi cantly reduce the microorganisms in foods with rough and opaque surface, such as packaged bread and cakes, meats, sh, chicken, shrimp, and tomato, with their shelf life extended from several days to 2 weeks (2). The effect of pulsed UV light is signi cantly in uenced by the thicknesses of treated materials, treatment time, and energy density. Recently, the use of pulsed UV light has been extended to the pasteurization of fruit juices using UV light, which involves design of treatment chambers that utilize turbulent ow to form a continuously renewed surface, thus enabling microbial inactivation (23).
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8.4 8.4.1
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Ultrasound is generated by sound waves of 20,000 or more vibrations per second. It is able to travel through gas, liquid, and solid materials. It can be classi ed into two categories: high-frequency low-energy ultrasound and lowfrequency high-energy ultrasound. High-frequency low-energy ultrasound covers frequencies higher than 100 kHz and intensities lower than 1 W/cm2; it is capable of traveling through a medium without altering the material, allowing nondestructive measurements in foods. It has been successfully used for characterizing physicochemical properties of food materials. Lowfrequency high-energy ultrasound is characterized by high power levels (10 1000 W/cm2) and relatively low frequencies (<0.1 MHz). Low-energy ultrasound applications in food processing include crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, ltration, homogenization, meat tenderization, emulsi cation, drying, and freezing (24, 25). There has been a growing interest in the use of high-intensity ultrasound as a preservation method, including surface sanitation, microbial inactivation, and modi cation of enzyme activity. The major mechanism for ultrasound microbial inactivation is cavitation. When ultrasound waves travel through liquids, bubbles or cavities are formed. When bubbles collapse, local shock waves are created that instantaneously increase the local temperature and pressure up to 5000 K and 100 MPa, respectively. The sudden changes in temperature and pressure that occur during cavitation are considered to be the main reasons for cell membrane damage and therefore microbial inactivation (26). Other mechanisms may include formation of free radicals and hydrogen peroxide, both of which have bactericidal properties.
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