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(18, 90 92). The main interesting germination process for this discussion is pressure-induced germination. Pressures between 100 and 200 MPa activate the germinant receptors, which lead to pathway similar to nutrient germination (91, 93). The whole reaction and/or kinetic depends strongly on temperature (94). Heinz and Knorr (94) assumed that pressure and temperature can trigger the de-immobilization of cortex lytic enzyme (CLE) activities and cause inactivation of the same enzymes by structural unfolding, which probably completely inhibits the CLE activity. Very high pressures of 500 600 MPa open the Ca2+-DPA (dipicolinic acid) channels (95), which may result in an incomplete germination process (85, 95). For the food industry, the hydrophobicity and agglomeration behavior is of high importance as possible reasons for adhesion to surfaces (96), microbial fouling and non-log10-linear shoulder as well as tailing formation (97). The importance of spore agglomerations becomes evident by the following. Agglomerates always produce one colony per each plate. Consequently, agglomerates of unknown cell numbers are always counted as one spore until all spores in the agglomerate are inactivated. Beyond this agglomeration and disintegration can change the colony-forming units per milliliter. Thus, it appears that agglomerations in spore suspensions need to be considered by modeling of the thermal (98) and probably pressure inactivation. 5.4.3 Viruses According to the DFG-SKLM (29), the multiplicity of virus types and their structures are too large to formulate a general statement at the present time. An increased risk compared with untreated foodstuffs is presently not recognizable.
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5.5 ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL The assessment of the in uence of high-pressure treatment of the allergenicity of foods should be performed in comparison with traditional food technological processes, in particular heat treatment, as suggested by the DFG-SKLM (29). Furthermore it was summarized that allergenicity can be altered after technological processing, for example, by formation of new allergens or epitopes. Most technological processes, in particular thermal processing, showed a partial inactivation of the allergenic potential (99, 100). The same tendency is shown with high-pressure generated data. There is very little evidence for an increase in allergenicity from food processing (101 105), but according to the DFG-SKLM (29) an increase of the allergenic potential through high-pressure treatment of foods thus seems to be unlikely. Unfortunately only a few studies were performed. Jankiewicz et al. found reduced IgE reactivity of an extract
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from celery tuber after high-pressure processing at 600 MPa (100). The results showed that the allergenic potential of the pressure-treated vegetable was graded between that of raw and of cooked celery. Kato et al. (106) reported that after high-pressure treatment at 500 MPa the major allergens of rice are released from the grains in a liquid medium. Grimm et al. (107) used circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to show that the recombinant major allergen from apple revealed changes in the secondary structure. The authors detected a decrease of the -helical regions and an increase of the -sheet structures. It was also mentioned that subsequent to high-pressure treatment, apples were tolerated in challenge tests without symptoms by ve individuals allergic to apples. In any case more research needs to be done to evaluate these rst experiments. High-pressure experiments have to be performed in the real food matrix and special attention should be paid to the big eight allergies to milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, seafood, shell sh, soy, and wheat.
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In accordance with documents put forward by the DFG-SKLM (29), highpressure treatment can cause chemical changes in foodstuffs. This involves preferentially those reactions and conformational changes that are associated with a reduction in volume. So far, vitamins, colors, and avors examined seem to be largely unaffected if compared with conventional thermal processes. However, attention is demanded concerning some reactions of food ingredients that could lead to chemical changes. For example, in the following reaction types (29): I = dissociation of organic acids and amines, the reversibility and reactivity of the dissociated species; II = cyclization reactions, for example, reactions of quinones with dienes (Diels Alder) as well as 2 + 2 cycloadditions; III = formation of ammonium, sulfonium, and phosphonium salts, reversibility, and reactivity of ions formed under pressure; and IV = hydrolysis reactions of ethers, esters, acetals, and ketals. The possible formation of bioactive peptides in protein-rich food requires explicit investigation. Detailed investigation on the effect of high pressure on the conformation of proteins in appropriate systems is required. In particular, protein brils from -sheets associated through wrongly folded protein aggregates should be investigated in more detail, because they appear in diseases such as the TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathy) diseases. The contrary results on the high-pressure-induced oxidation of fats require more clari cation. It has been proposed that the microbiological safety of high-pressuretreated food has to be proven by a case-by-case evaluation using realistic concentrations of the relevant bacterial species. It is essential to characterize the hygiene-relevant target organisms (29). An in-depth understanding of the
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