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Histamine 1 20 1 1788 nd 210 1 4 5 121 1 479 42 99 14 150 3 2000 1 54 10 36 1 402
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BIOGENIC AMINES
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3.2.2.4 Wine Alcoholic beverages constitute another category of fermented products that sometimes bear substantial quantities of biogenic amines. Wine is known to contain many biologically active compounds. The amounts and compositions of these compounds depend on the type of grapes and their degree of ripeness, climate, and soil of the viticultural area, as well as vini cation techniques. Amino acids represent the main source of nitrogen for both yeast and malolactic bacteria during wine fermentation, and also serve as substrate for volatile aroma compounds for biogenic amine production in wine. The amines form primarily during and after the spontaneous malolactic fermentation process by decarboxylation of the precursor free amino acids. Alcohol may potentiate the biological effect of biogenic amines present in wine by inhibiting the catabolism of amines (21). In general, white wines have rarely been implicated, while red wines have often provoked physiological distress because red wines contain higher amount of histamine than white wines do. These differences may be due to the different fermentation processes. Red wine is produced from whole grapes whereas white wine is produced from grape juice without the skins. It means that red wine is liable to be contaminated by amine-producing microorganisms. Some countries have regulations for the maximum content of histamine allowed in wine. The recommended upper limit for histamine in wine has been reported to be 10 mg/L in Austria, 5 6 mg/L in Belgium, 8 mg/L in France, 2 mg/L in Germany, 10 mg/L in Hungary, 3.5 mg/L in the Netherlands, and 10 mg/L in Switzerland (21). The presence of biogenic amines in wines is well documented in the literature (82 92). Predominant biogenic amines in wine are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and agmatine. The production of histamine, tyramine, and putrescine by LAB isolated from wine has been studied by different authors (93 95). Some LAB strains are responsible for the histamine, tyramine, and phenylethylamine concentrations, but not for putrescine concentrations in wine. Putrescine mainly originates from the grape must since it is, besides agmatine and spermidine, the most abundant amine in grapes (95). Surveys made on wines showed that winemaking technology had greater effect on biogenic amine formation in wines than geographical origin, grape variety, and year of vintage (86 91). Ratios of putrescine to tyramine were successfully used to differentiate between white and red wines (88). Table 3.2.5 shows the ranges of biogenic amine contents in red and white wines.
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TABLE 3.2.5
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Wine Red wine White wine
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Ranges of biogenic amine contents in wines (mg/L).
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Tyramine nd 11.9 nd 12 Putrescine 1 14 0.5 10 Cadaverine 0.2 3 0.1 1.5 Spermine nd 2 0.1 2.5 Spermidine 0.1 3 0.1 7 Agmatine nd 53 nd 32
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Histamine nd 14.5 nd 0.2
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Data from Reference 61. nd, not detected.
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Beer
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Beer is de ned as an alcoholic beverage from starch-containing raw materials serving as a source for maltose and glucose, which are fermented by brewers yeast. Although barley malt is the most important cereal, wheat, wheat malt, corn, rice, and millet are also used as starch-containing adjuncts or extenders and sources for fermentable sugars. In beer production, alcoholic fermentation takes place by the action of selected strains of the yeast. Beers are classi ed into two groups: top- and bottom-fermented based on whether yeast oats or sinks by the end of fermentation. Besides Saccharomyces cerevisiae (top fermenting) and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (bottom fermenting), various wild yeasts, together with LAB, are involved in the brewing process of special local beers. The total biogenic amine content of beer is in uenced by the barley variety used in the brewing process, malting technology, wort processing, and the conditions during fermentation (96, 97). Higher amounts of histamine and tyramine in some European beers indicate microbial contamination during brewing (96 107). Considering the bacterial origin of biogenic amines, Loret et al. established a beer biogenic amine index (Beer BAI) (107) similarly to what has been done for sh by Mietz and Kamas (77). The Beer BAI calculation formula consists of the ratio of biogenic amines of bacterial origin (Him, Put, Cad, Tym, phenylethylamine; Phem, tryptamine; Trpm) to the natural biogenic amine found in the malt (Agm). Each biogenic amine concentration is expressed in mg/L: BAI = ( Him + Put + Cad + Tym + Phem + Trpm ) (1 + Agm ) Beer BAI value re ects the microbiological quality of the fermentation process. If the BAI value is lower than 1.0, it means the beer has been produced by a non-contaminated fermentation process (high microbiologic quality). If the BAI value is between 1.0 and 10.0, it means moderate contamination by decarboxylating bacteria (intermediate level of microbiological quality), and higher than 10.0 BAI value means the beer is highly contaminated by amineproducing bacteria (poor microbiological quality). The nonalcoholic beers do not have signi cantly lower amounts of biogenic amines than the majority of regular beers, indicating that methods used to produce them do not result in the decrease of amines (104). No of cial maximum or limits have been set for histamine or tyramine concentrations in beers. According to a recommended guideline, 6-mg tyramine ingestion within a 4-h period is considered a safe amount for beers (99). The ranges of histamine and tyramine contents detected in different types of beer are shown in Table 3.2.6. 3.2.2.6 Sauerkraut
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Sauerkraut has been very popular in many European countries due to its sensorial properties and favorable nutritional value. Sauerkraut is produced
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