BIOGENIC AMINES in .NET framework

Painting USS Code 128 in .NET framework BIOGENIC AMINES
BIOGENIC AMINES
Code 128C Scanner In .NET Framework
Using Barcode Control SDK for .NET framework Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Biogenic Amines (e.g., Histamine): At a Glance
Drawing Code 128B In .NET
Using Barcode encoder for VS .NET Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set B image in .NET framework applications.
Biogenic amine research began some 120 years ago with the identi cation of spermine, putrescine, and cadaverine. In the early 20th century histamine was isolated from animal tissues. Biogenic amines are of interest due to their potential risk for human health but also in their role as chemical markers of food spoilage and poor processing and storage conditions. HPLC is the most common technique used coupled to either UVabsorbing or uorescence detection. Reversed phase HPLC is usually coupled with either pre-or post-column derivatization of the analytes. Found in many different foods, especially fermented foods, dairy products; the biogenic amine patterns in vegetables and meat differ. The main compounds encountered are histamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. Formation from their amino acid precursors by enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation under conditions that favor bacterial growth, i.e., histidine histamine, tyrosine tyramine, etc. Appropriate handling and processing of sh and meat under sanitary conditions and controlled temperatures. Bacterial activity is increased at raised temperatures, so poor storage conditions exacerbate the problem. Cooking can destroy the bacteria but not the toxic agent (histamine). In commercial fermented food applications, the utilization of amine negative bacterial starter cultures or mixed starter cultures has been suggested. Histamine intoxication, often called scombrotoxicosis, is a common seafood-borne disease associated with the consumption of spoiled scombroid sh such as tuna, mackerel, and sardines. The typical symptoms like ushing, urticaria, and palpitations mimic those of allergy so histamine sh poisoning can easily be misdiagnosed. However, food poisoning may also occur in conjunction with potentiating factors such as drugs, alcohol, gastrointestinal diseases. Putrescine, spermine, spermidine and cadaverine have no adverse health effects, but they may react with nitrite to form carcinogenic nitrosamines especially in meat products that contain nitrite and nitrate as curing agents. The EU has established a legislative limit for histamine in shery products particularly in those sh species that are associated with a high amount of histidine. Some countries have regulated the amounts of histamine in different foods at the national level. Generally, upper limits of 100 mg/kg histamine in foods and 2 mg/L in beverages are suggested. The safety assessment of biogenic amines is dif cult because knowledge concerning long-term toxic effects and dose-response are often incomplete. A database on biogenic amines in different foods at the national and regional level will enable better exposure assessments and subsequently lead to dietary recommendations. No speci c recommendations from a dietary perspective, as the risks are associated with food spoilage.
Scanning Code 128A In .NET Framework
Using Barcode recognizer for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
Historical
Bar Code Encoder In .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in .NET applications.
Analysis
Bar Code Reader In VS .NET
Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Occurrence in Food
Code 128 Code Set B Generator In Visual C#
Using Barcode encoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Code 128C image in .NET applications.
Main Formation Pathways
Drawing Code 128 In .NET
Using Barcode creation for ASP.NET Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in ASP.NET applications.
Mitigation in Food
Paint Code 128 In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode creator for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 128 Code Set A image in .NET applications.
Health Risks
Print Barcode In .NET Framework
Using Barcode generation for VS .NET Control to generate, create barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Regulatory Information or Industry Standards
Make Barcode In .NET
Using Barcode maker for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in VS .NET applications.
Knowledge Gaps
GTIN - 12 Generation In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for VS .NET Control to generate, create GTIN - 12 image in VS .NET applications.
Useful Information (web) & Dietary Recommendations
USD-4 Generator In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode printer for .NET Control to generate, create Code-27 image in .NET framework applications.
INTRODUCTION
GTIN - 128 Encoder In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode drawer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create GS1 128 image in ASP.NET applications.
Tyramine was rst isolated from the posterior salivary glands of Octopus macropus by M. Henze in 1913 (11). 3.2.1.2 General Considerations on Biogenic Amines
Painting Bar Code In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode encoder for .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in VS .NET applications.
Biogenic amines are aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic low-molecular-mass biomolecules. They are formed and degraded during normal cellular metabolism. Biogenic amines play a variety of physiological roles, such as regulation of the digestion, the central and peripheral nervous systems, and blood pressure. The polyamines, spermidine and spermine, are essential for cell growth and proliferation. They are involved in nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) and protein biosynthesis and are also mediators of hormones (12, 13). Biogenic amines in food are mainly formed as a result of microbial decarboxylation of amino acids. The most important biogenic amines in food are histamine (Him), derived from histidine; tyramine (Tym), derived from tyrosine; and cadaverine (Cad; 1,5-diaminopentane), which is derived from lysine. Putrescine (Put; 1,4-diaminobutane) is formed either from ornithine or from arginine via agmatine (Agm; 1-amino-4-guanidinobutane). Polyamines spermidine (Spd; [N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-diaminobutane]) and spermine (Spm; [N,N -bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-diaminobutane]) arise from putrescine (14). Structures of the main biogenic amines are shown in Fig. 3.2.1.
Drawing Bar Code In Visual C#
Using Barcode generator for .NET Control to generate, create bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Structures of the main biogenic amines.
Paint UCC - 12 In VB.NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create UCC.EAN - 128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
BIOGENIC AMINES
Code 39 Scanner In .NET Framework
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
High amounts of exogenous biogenic amines, especially histamine and tyramine, in the human diet may contribute to a wide variety of toxic effects. The allergy-like symptoms may include sneezing and congestion of the nose, headache, breathing dif culty, bronchial asthma, gastric disorders, diarrhea, hypotension, cardiac palpitations, and urticarial exanthema (14). Biogenic amines in food are of great interest not only for their potential risk to human health but also because they could have a role as chemical indicators of unwanted microbial contamination and processing conditions. Numerous bacteria have been reported to possess amino acid decarboxylase activity, such as Clostridium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella (15). There are signi cant differences in the biogenic amine composition of the two major types of food, of plant and animal origin. Vegetable-type foods contain high amount of putrescine, spermine, and spermidine but signi cantly lower amount of histamine than do animal-derived foods. Generally, the vegetable-type foods may be considered low-risk products with regard to the presence of biogenic amines, while the products of microbial fermentation (cheese, sausage, sh, wine, beer, sauerkraut) may contain relatively high amounts of the biogenic amines (16). However, while biogenic amines can cause several problems for susceptible consumers, there is a general absence of speci c legislation setting limits on biogenic amines in food. The European Union (17) established legislative limit values only for histamine in sh, since histamine has been implicated in causing the most frequent foodborne intoxications. Some countries have regulated the maximum amounts of histamine in different foods at a national level. Generally, upper limits of 100 mg histamine/kg in food and 2 mg/L in beverages have been suggested. There are recommendations for tyramine (100 800 mg tyramine/kg) and for 2-phenylethylamine (30 mg/kg) in food (18). Knowledge of biogenic amines in fermented foods is necessary to make an assessment of the health hazards arising from the consumption of these products, and also it can provide information to improve food quality with respect to biogenic amine content. Several studies have monitored the biogenic amine formation and occurrence in food. The rst general monograph on biogenic amines was published by Guggenheim in 1920 (19). Recent information on the topic is given in some valuable reviews (16, 20 26).
Code 128 Code Set A Maker In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode generator for VS .NET Control to generate, create USS Code 128 image in .NET framework applications.
Code 39 Extended Drawer In VB.NET
Using Barcode generation for .NET Control to generate, create Code 39 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.